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New Imperialism, Progressivism, WWI & Roaring 20s, APUSH

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Amber Fogle-Sergent

on 25 February 2017

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Transcript of New Imperialism, Progressivism, WWI & Roaring 20s, APUSH

Separate elements
Freedom...
Freedom's Boundaries, at Home & Abroad 1890-1918
Politics of Prosperity
&
Politics of Frustration

1860s -- Sharecropping & Crop Lien System
1862 - Homestead Act
1860s - 1880s -- Farmers in Midwest
1860s - 1870s -- Grange
Grange Laws & Political & Social Activism
1878 -- Farmers Alliance
Subtreasury Plan
Gov't Loans
Direct Elections of Senators
Free Silver
Women -- Political & Social Activism
Bi-racial Coalitions
Farmers in Debt.
Railroads Monopoly
Greenback Party, 1870s
Free Silver!
Crime of 1873!
1880s - 1890s
Farmers in Debt.
1892 -- Populist Party
Omaha Platform
Subtreasury Plan
Gov't Loans
Direct Elections of Senators
Free Silver
Women's Suffrage
Right to Labor Unions
1896 -- Presidential Election
William J. Bryan, Democrat
"Cross of Gold"
William McKinely, Republican
$10 Million Front Porch Campaign
Tom Watson, Populist
Mary Lease, Raise more hell, less corn
Tom Watson, Bi-racial coalition
Sockless Jerry Simpson, People's Party
Farmers in Debt.
Democrat Solid South -- Little AA Vote
Reconstruction Ends.
Populism's Significance:
Election:
Last presidential election with major high voter turnout.
Some states -- 90% voted.
Voter goes downhill.

Millions of dollars & Propaganda.
Modern day style.
Political Parties
Republicans take control.
Democrats won't regain control until Great Depression.
Firmly establishes our 2-Party System.
1800s -- 3rd Parties were contenders
Populists were the last.
Populist Reforms:
1892...on to something
Right to Labor Unions. (CIO & WWI)
Women's Rights. (Suffrage
Gov't control of utilities. (Railroads)
Voting Rights (Senators)
Gov't loans/subsidies (Great Depression)
Progressive Movement
But obstacles too immense....
Nativism
Money
Racism
Hard to unite for common goals.
What were the origins and the significance of Populism?
How did the United States emerge as an imperial power in the 1890s?
How did Progressive Presidents foster the rise of the nation-state?
In what ways did Progressivism include both democratic and anti-democratic impulses?
How did the liberties of blacks after 1877 give way to legal segregation across the South?
How did the labor and women's movements challenge the meanings of American freedom?
How did America get involved in World War I?
Why was 1919 such a watershed year for the United States and the world?
Roaring Twenties: Who benefited from this New Era...and who didn't?
What is a Progressive?
1910 -- coined as a way to describe a broad, political & social movement
Wanted Significant Change in American life.
Empower industrial workers.
Protect Women & Children from exploitation.
Believed academic research could solve social problems.
Wanted government regulation to help fix ills.
End corrupt political machines.
But contradictory...
Era saw expansion of political, economic & social freedoms.
Women's Suffrage, Food regulation, National Parks, Workers' rights, Ordinary citizens with a voice.
Era supported the limit of freedoms to those deemed fit.
Immigrants, African Americans, Exploited Territories.
Business exploded...and busted.
When?
The Progressive Era to the New Era, 1890 - 1928
Unit 5:

Imperialism, Progressivism & World War I
Populism
Human Zoos
Social Darwinism
Anthropology
White Man's Burden -- justification for imperial power
It would bring modern "civilization" to the supposedly backward people of the non-European world.
Roots...
Ethnocentrism:
Evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture.
The Lure of Empire
Markets
Fordlandia
Sugar
Oil
Mining
Rubber
Land
Nationalism
Alfred T. Mahan
"No nation could prosper without a large fleet of ships engaged in international trade, protected by a powerful navy operating from overseas bases."
A more aggressive foreign policy necessary for survival.
"The Splendid Little War"
Weyler who?
Cuba: A Colony of Spain
Why splendid?
Meet Mickey Dugan, the Yellow Kid.
Money Made off White Man's Burden
Secretary of State John Hays, "a splendid little war"
Rough Riders
Teddy Roosevelt
Buffalo Soldiers
Battle of San Juan Hill
Roosevelt was a sickly kid. Severe asthma, his father was ashamed.
Devoted his teens and young adulthood to building a healthy constitution, through weightlifting, horseback riding, box, wrestling & hunting.
African American soldiers, excluded from Roosevelt's Rough Riders, preceded TR...a fact he omitted in his reports of battles, which were widley reproduced in the press.
CODA:
America firmly entered the arena of world powers.
Increased its foreign presence well beyond continent and hemisphere.
President McKinley, at first, an isolationist.
Pushed to war with yellow journalism & Jingoism. (Remember the Maine!)
Teddy Roosevelt a National Hero.
Now what? Philippines...Cuba...Hawaii...
Country divided...
1) Annex Cuba, Philippines & Hawaii as a colony
2) Neutral nation to govern the two.
3) Grant Cuba, Philippines & Hawaii independence
As governor of Cuba, his "Reconcentration Policy" brutally killed an estimated 10 percent of Cuban population.
"Yellow Journalism"
"Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain"
USS Maine, Feb. 15, 1898
270 lives lost
Historians believe the explosion was accidental...
"Extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy."
Oxford English
"Jingoism"
4 months, 5400 lives (only 300 in battle)
Why Yellow?
Named after the Yellow Kid Comic that was featured in two most powerful newspapers at turn of century.
Populism
Reteach Moment
What to do with Cuba?
1) Give Independence?
2) Annex as a colony like other western empires?
3) Neutral nation...with privileges?
*** Which was chosen? ***
What to do with Hawaii?
1) Honor independence?
2) Make a territory with privileges?
3) Annex as a colony?
*** Which was chosen? Why? ***
What to do with Philippines?
1) Honor independence?
2) Make a territory with privileges?
3) Annex as a colony?
*** Which was chosen? ***
PLATT AMENDMENT
OPEN DOOR POLICY
ROOSEVELT'S COROLLARY
Annexationists...
Anti-Annexationists...
Roosevelt
Yellow Journalists
President McKinley
Missionaries
John Hay
William Howard Taft
Rudyard Kipling, "White Man's Burden"
Jane Addams
Anti-Imperialist League
Democrats
Philippine Nationalists
Hawaiian Nationalists
Cuban Nationalists
Before recognizing independence, McKinley forced island's new government to approve the Platt Amendment.
Authorized military intervention when US saw fit.
Established military base.
Acquired permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba, including now what is called Guantanamo Bay.
"To change masters is not to be free..." Jose Marti, Cuban patriot
“leave the government and control of the island of Cuba to its people.”
1) Prohibited Cuban gov't from entering into any international treaty that would compromise Cuban independence
2) Prohibited Cuban gov't to allow foreign powers to use the island for military purposes
3) Right to intervene in Cuban affairs in order to defend Cuban independence
4/5) Sanitary conditions & relinquish claims on Isle of Pines
6) Agree to sell/lease territory permanently for coaling & naval stations
7) Make Platt Amendment legally binding w/ Treaty
Voided Teller Amendment, which anti-annexationists forced McKinley to authorize & granted Cuba independence following removal of Spanish forces
Demanded European powers share trade & commercial activity in China.
Sec. John Hays
Referred to markets, not people
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
First sign. law restricting immigration:
Required to show non-laborers.
Difficult to prove.
1882 act defined excludables as “skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining.”
Expired in 10 years, renewed in form of Geary Act.
Boxer Rebellion, 1901
The Philippine War
1896 - 1898
After Dewey's victory at Manila Bay, their leader, Emilio Aguinald, established provisional gov't modeled after US.
1899 - 1903
Widely Debated -- Annex or Anti-Annex?
Once McKinley decided to retain possession of islands, a bloodier & costly war.
100,000 Filipions & 4200 Americans
William Howard Taft, American governor-general of Philippines
Social reforms, education & public health
Agricultural reforms -- long-term consequences
When next I realized that the Philippines had dropped into our laps I confess I did not know what to do with them. I sought counsel from all sides—Democrats as well as Republicans—but got little help. I thought first we would take only Manila; then Luzon; then other islands perhaps also. I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night.

And one night late it came to me this way—I don’t know how it was, but it came: (1) That we could not give them back to Spain—that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France or Germany—our commercial rivals in the Orient—that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) that we could not leave them to themselves—they were unfit for self-government—and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain’s was; and (4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died.

And then I went to bed, and went to sleep, and slept soundly, and the next morning I sent for the chief engineer of the War Department (our map-maker), and I told him to put the Philippines on the map of the United States [pointing to a large map on the wall of his office], and there they are, and there they will stay while I am President!

Excerpt from “Interview with President McKinley by General James F. Rusling,”
The Christian Advocate, January 22, 1903.
Please pull out half-sheet paper. Take 5 minutes & read. Two minutes writing -- What's President McKinley's justification?
Full transcript