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APWH Project (1450-1750)
Transcript of APWH Project (1450-1750)
The largest and most organized empire of Africa from the middle of the 15th century until the late 16th century was Songhay (Songhai) in northwest Africa in areas that had been controlled by the earlier Kingdom of Mali.
The ruler developed a centralized government with governors to oversee provinces, as well as an army and navy to protect trade. Songhay was prosperous, its cities boasted beautiful public buildings, and Islam was strongly supported by the elite.
The 16th century also saw the destruction of most of the Swahili city-states.
The fate of the Kingdom of Kongo was an early sign of what contact with Europe was to bring to Africa. Kongo was on the Atlantic Ocean in central Africa, that developed into a centralized state during the 14th century.
To better facilitate trade with the Europeans the Kongolese kings converted to Christianity spreading it throughout their realm.
The kingdom of Benin the Niger Delta was near the peak of its power whe it first encountered the Portuguese. Its king presided over elacborate bureaucracy. Leah Sutton
1st period Politics
1450-1750 Question #5:
What were the basic political structures found in the world's empires? Who ruled? How did he/she gain power? Were certain areas different than others? Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was the longest-lasting post-Mongol Muslim Empire.
The empire expanded into southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, reaching its height under Suleiman the Magnificent.
The empire rested on the military led by the sultan, and changes in military structure ultimately weakened the state.
The Ottoman Empire was a military creation, like most empires. Their religious soldiers were called ghazi. They also conscripted the sons of conquered peoples for use in their army, and these people were called Janissaries.
The political structure of the empire placed the emperor at the top. The emperor owned and distributed all land and had the power to hire and fire officials at will. To try and avoid succession problems, the Ottomans kept their empire tightly centralized and gave emperors power to kill off his brothers. Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire lasted from 1526-1761 and was established and consolidated by the Turkic warrior Babur and his grandson Akbar.
Akbar established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory.
Under Akbar and his three successors all but the southern tip of India fell under Mughal rule, administered first from Agra and then from Delhi.
Foreign trade prospered, but the Mughals did not maintain a navy or merchant marine, preferring to allow Europeans to serve as carriers. China: In 1450, the Ming Dynasty was almost a century old. From its foundation in 1368 to the early 1400’s, the Ming Dynasty had developed into a centralized and militarily powered state.
During this time it was a bureaucracy with scholars and Eunuchs in power.
Later rulers of the Dynasty were weak and allowed government to decentralize and eventually fall apart. From 1662-1722 Emporer Kangxi was ruler over China.
Kangxi, who took formal control over his government in 1669 at the age of sixteen, was an intellectual prodigy and a successful military commander who expanded his territory and gave it a high degree of stability. Chinese Emperor Kangxi The Ming Dynasty was finally overthrown in 1644 by the Manchus, a northern power that had previously helped Ming emperors fight the Mongols and Japanese. The Manchus turned on the Ming once they discovered how weak the empire was, and they called themselves the Qing ("pure") Empire because they saw themselves as restoring China to glory. Suleiman the Magnificent ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520-1566. He was known as the "lawgiver" and his reign is marked as a golden age in the Ottoman empire when the imperial system worked to perfection. Suleiman significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. Suleiman the Magnificent Major Mughal leaders Akbar (r.1556-1605)
he was the most illustrious of the Mughal rulers: he took the throne at thirteen and commanded the gov't on his own at twenty.
Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658)
Empire declined after his death. Africa: Russian Empire During the centuries just before 1500, the history of the Russians had been dominated by steppe nomads.
The Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde ruled the Russians and their neighbors from the 1240s to 1480.
Moscovy became the center of Russian political power and led the movement against Mongol domination.Ivan lV expanded Muscovy.
Emerging from the Time of Troubles, the Romanov tsars worked to centralize royal authority and to institutionalize serfdom.
Peter the Great accelerated Russia's westernization, fought wars of expansion, and enlarged the power of the tsar.
Expansion continued eastward and westward, and Catherine the Great continued Peter's westernizationing policies. Americas In the eighteenth century Amerindians in the colonies of Spain, Portugal, France and England all experienced European subjugation.
In Spanish and Portuguese colonies, indigenous military allies and laborers proved crucial to the development of European settlements.
In the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had created new administrative jurisdictions called viceroyalties to defend their respective colonies against European rivals. Peter the Great Tsar Peter the Great (r. 1689-1725) Peter wanted to use European technology and culture to strengthen Russia and to strenthen the autocratic power of his government.
As an autocratic ruler, Peter brought the Russian Orthodox Church under his control; built industrial plants to serve the military; and increased the burdens of taxes and labor on the serfs, whom the Russian Empire depended upon for the production of basic foodstuffs. England and Iberia The monarchs of early modern Europe occupied the apex of the social order, were arbitrators of the intellectual and religious conflicts of their day, and exercised important influence on the economies of their realms.
During this period, political leadership in Europe passed from Spain to the Netherlands and then to England and France.
City-states and principalities abounded, either independently or bound together in federations, of which the Holy Roman Empire of the German heartland was the most notable example. There were also a small number of republics and a number of strong monarchies.
Warfare was almost constant in early modern Europe in monarchs' persuit of power. These wars also led to dramatic improvements in the skill and weaponry of Europeanarmed forces, making them among the most powerful in the world. European Monarchs King Henry Vlll: broke the nation of England away from the Roman Catholic Church. Charles V: Holy Roman emporer. He failed to create a unified Holy Roman Empire. Elizabeth l: Daughter of Henry Vlll. Spanish Armada crushed in 1588 during her rule.