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Egypt Imperialism Project

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Jessie Powers

on 10 February 2013

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Transcript of Egypt Imperialism Project

Imperialism in Egypt By Jessie Powers, Hannah Pittel, David Parker, and Elizabeth Reilly Motivation for Colonization
& Political Impact Cultural & Economic
Impact Independence Movement Legacy Economic Indicators GDP per capita
2009 - $6,300
2011 - $6,500
Ranked 137 in the world

Mortality Rates
2012 - 4.8 deaths/1,000 population
Ranked 192 in the world

Literacy Rates
Total population - 72%
Male - 80.3%
Female - 63.5% Impact on Social Classes British industry developed Egypt as a source of raw materials, increasing the production of cotton
By 1914, cotton made 93% of Egypt's export earnings
Industrialization was disregarded and there was little investment made in public education, which kept literacy rates low
Continued authority of large landholders and an increase in the amount of landless peasants (Leads to future economic crisis) Religious
Pre-Imperialism, Egypt was a pluralist society
Christian and Jewish communities lived among the majority Muslim population
British policy favored foreigners in government
Included Copts, the local Christian population, who worked in the government
Muslims thought they should be higher up in society than the Copts
Religious tension between the Muslims and Copts arose in the early 20th century
A system of legal and economic privileges (Capitulations) were granted by the Ottomans to people with European nationality
Benefited Europeans and ignored Egyptians
Armenians, Greeks, Maltese, and Italians came to take advantage of the economic opportunities
The bourgeoisie became largely European Impact on Religious/Ethnic Groups Long-term Political In(stability) After Decolonization In 1877 France and Britain had dual control over Egypt. Their goal was to restore order and stability to the government and economy. Who were the colonizers? When and how did they colonize? In 1882 Britain took full control of Egypt. The British sent warships to Alexandria, defeating an Egyptian force. The British were now in control. Did the colonizers use direct or indirect rule? What was the impact of whichever style was used? The British used direct rule to govern Egypt. The British appointed officials to oversee the fixing of the economy and government. The number of British officials in the Egyptian government instilled nationalism in many Egyptians. To what extent did the colonized peoples collaborate with the colonizers? Muhammed Tawfiq Pasha replaced Egyptian leader Ismail because he resisted European control. To what extent did the colonized people resist the colonizers? Colonel Ahmad Urabi, an Egyptian nationalist rebelled against Tawfiq pasha. February 22, 1922 Britain granted Egypt self-government with its own constitution and parliamentary system; however, Britain still had authority within the government
1922-1952: liberal period
Illusion of Egyptian independence, British still had informal control of Egypt
Political instability and social tension arise from the end of World War II until 1952
Large public protests
Assassination of two prime ministers
1948-1949: Defeated by Israeli forces in the Palestine War
Series of governments failed to deal with economic issues, especially the need for land reform, the absence of industrial development, and the low literacy rates
1949: Gamal Nasser formed the Free Officers and took over the government
Nasser brought strength and stability
Motivated nationalistic ideas throughout the Arab World
Considered the leader of the Arab people Growth in Anti-European Sentiment -In many earlier political decisions in Egypt Great Britain and France would allow Egyptian rulers to participate, but an 1880 law which reduced Egyptian control in the government sparked unease among the Egyptians Beginnings of Rebellion -1881/1882 qUrabi Rebellion broke out because of growing economic problems
>led by Ahmed qUrabi
>prompted British concern for the safety of the Suez Canal(important African trade route) and safety of British investments British Retaliation -In 1882 the British bombard the coast of Alexandria and occupy Egypt
Attack was said to be short term and just until stability was maintained, but the British didn't withdraw until 1956
-Incidentally, British colonization prompted a spread of Egyptian nationalism through Arabic press Steps Towards Freedom -A key movement towards freedom occurred in the 1952 Egyptian Revolution led by General Mohammed Neguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. Farouk I, son of King Fuad, was ruling after receiving an English education
-Neguib and Nasser shared power until 1954 when Nasser became the president of Egypt
-Nasser displayed clear interest in liberating the Palestines from the Jews and began buying weaponry from the USSR and Czechoslovakia
-Nasser began to redistribute the land in Egypt and made plans to industrialize it as well
-Nasser was also iconic in the Arab dream on being united in a single state -Egypt had always been a major economic center, due to the Nile River Basin which brought rich agricultural achievements.
-The agricultural success stemmed form the annual Nile floods that supplied the land with water, in a desert climate.
-Being along the Indian Ocean, made Egypt's appeal even greater for Imperialistic powers
-This part of the Indian ocean stretches from the narrow Bab el-Mandeb strait between Yemen and Djibouti to the Egyptian part of Suez.
-This was a huge appeal to the British because they could have control over the sea in that area. -Egyptian youth were exposed to education, most of the poor were not benefited from education opportunities though. -Islam was most commonly practiced among the people, although after the British took control, Christianity spread. -English began to be taught and when the British were directly ruling was the official language. -The opening of the Suez canal drew European powers even farther into Egyptian affairs.

-The British feared French intervention yet again, and they did not want to share power.

-The British sent an army of occupation into Egypt in 1882, and even though a speedy evacuation of the troops was promised, the British were not fully withdrawn until 1956.

- This impacted Egyptian culture due to such a large population of British living in their lands for such a long time -During the 1930s and 1940s, Egypt followed England in Industrializing. With the founding of local textile making, glassware, and other industries. This created a local consumer market for Egyptians. -Although Egypt no longer had British forces occupying their country in 1956, they were still not completely independent until the beginning of the 1960s. -During the time that Egypt was occupied women were seen as irrelevant, and nonthreatening to the British. Most of the women did not resist British rule and obeyed law. Appeal of the Colony Imperialist Impact Change in the Freedom of Society Influence of the British and the Effect on Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser -As seen in the
cartoon, the power
share between Egypt
and the 'supporting'
countries was not
always equal
-The cartoon portrays an English officer 'protecting' Egypt Egypt compared to industrialized nations (Israel) Egypt Egypt compared to its mother country
(The United Kingdom) The United Kingdom Government Pseudo-democracy Constitutional monarchy Motor vehicles 30 motor vehicles per 1,000 people 426 motor vehicles per 1,000 people (13 times more than Egypt) GDP per capita $4,435.20 $31,941.26 (6 times larger than Egypt) GDP growth 4.94 annual % - Egypt is still industrializing, while the UK is not 1.82 annual % Persons living in rural areas vs. urban areas 58% rural vs. 42% urban 11% rural vs. 89% urban In June 1882 riots broke out in Alexandria. British began bombarding Alexandria in July and defeated Urabi's army in September. The British wanted to stay in Egypt only until their financial and strategic goals were achieved but a complicated situation in Egyptian ruled Sudan made for a longer occupation. The British used direct rule in Egypt because they were competing for control not only with the Egyptians for control but also with the French. Tawfiq was a "British approved" leader. Battle of Tel el Kebir Muhammed Tawfiq Pasha -They were finally starting to achieve their nationalistic goal. Government Motor vehicles GDP per capita GDP growth Persons living in rural areas vs. urban areas Egypt Israel Pseudo-democracy (a state with democratic structures, but without a real chance for an alternance of power) All data from 2005-2006 All data from 2005-2006 democracy 30 motor vehicles per 1,000 people 263 motor vehicles per 1,000 people $4,435.20 $22,661.62 (5 times more than Egypt) 4.94% annually 5.17% annually (5 times more than Egypt) 58% rural vs. 42% urban 8% rural vs. 92% urban This cartoon is an appeal to both Coptic Christians and Muslims in Egypt to unite against the SCAF (Supreme Council of the Armed Forces) dictatorship. Copts and Muslims: Together you can make Egypt stronger!
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