the center of measured body and the axis.

Calculate the equation of a lever:

**Active learning in the Heureka Project – teachers in the role of students**

**Irena Dvořáková**

**Department of Physics Education,**

Faculty of Mathematics and Physics,

Charles University in Prague

Faculty of Mathematics and Physics,

Charles University in Prague

- preparation of future physics teachers

- experiments for high schools

- Interactive physics laboratory

- in-service teachers training

- a summer math - phys camp

- activities open to public

- FyzWeb portal

- pedagogical research

- physics and science education research

- physics text books both for lower

and higher secondary schools, ...

**Lower secondary school**

Prague 6

Prague 6

**The Heureka Project**

**Do you know any teachers training -**

- where participants are really active?

- which is organized during weekends?

- which is voluntary and free of charge?

- where participants are accommodated in school?

Bohumil Bílý

1921 - 2002

**My work:**

**The Heureka project**

**Work with children**

- education of pupils (ages 6 - 15)

- many projects

- excursions

- activities open to public,...

It has:

- about 700 pupils

- a library

- 2 computer classrooms

- a swimming pool

It gives me:

- a real experiences with today’s children

- real-life classroom examples for my work with teachers and future teachers

- a good base for....

What properties the motion of the pendulum could depend on?

- mass of the body

- shape of the body

- length of the string

- deflection at the beginning

- thickness of string

An example of the methodological sequence

Ancient clocks

Children’s results:

2007

2012

a milimetre graph paper

a period/length graph

formulate hypotheses

verify these hypotheses

collect real data

work with data

draw a non-linear graph

discuss this graph

read information from the graph

compare measured and calculated results

An example of written exam

1.A child is on a merry-go-round (carousel). What should the child do and how should the merry-go-round behave to accomplish the following situations:

a) the child is at rest with respect to the merry-go-round and in motion with respect to the Earth,

b) the child is in motion with respect to the merry-go-round, at rest with respect to the Earth,

c) the child is in motion with respect to the merry-go-round and to the Earth too

d) the child is at rest with respect to the merry-go-round and with respect to the Earth too.

2.A motorboat has a speed of 20 metres per second and it takes it 40 min to travel the distance between two ports. How far are the ports? What time does this journey take for a slower boat, which goes at a speed of 10 km per hour?

3.The bus went 0,5 hour at a speed of 50 km per hour, next 20 km went at 40 km per hour, then it stood still for half an hour. Then it covered the remaining 100 km at a speed of 50 km per hour. Calculate how many kilometres it covered in total and how long did it take (including the rest). Calculate average speed of this motion. Draw a graph showing the distance-time dependence.

4.You can see a photo of a guidepost on which distances are given in hours, not in kilometers. Explain in which regions it is used and the reason for it.

5.Design some processes, the speed of which makes sense to measure in:

a) cm per hour, b) liter per minute, c) kg per year, d) mm per year.

6.Write a story for the graph:

Classroom scientific reasoning test

(Lawson’s test) - results

Active learning in the Heureka Project – teachers in the role of students

investigation of lenses

electromagnetism

pendulum

magnets

electric circuits

(creating)

investigation of wax vapour

test

electric circuits

(competition)

properties

of matter

Part of the test for new participants

Seminars for new participants (“the teachers’ kindergarten”)

1. A car of mass 2500 kg goes up a hill (with a gradient 10%) for two minutes at speed 50 km/h. A figure presents its position after one minute. Draw the net force (i. e. a sum of all forces) acting on the car.

Our department focuses on:

Our school focuses on:

Together we find, that

- mass of the body

- shape of the body

- deflection at the beginning

- thickness of the string

- length of the string

do not affect the motion

of the pendulum

Motion is affected only by

Task for the next lesson

Children’s ideas:

(the 6th class, pupils age about 12)

Children (in pairs)

Measure the number of cycles of pendulum

per 10 seconds for two different lengths

Fill in the values in a table

(on the blackboard or in the computer)

Write the two important columns to the exercise books

Investigation of the pendulum

Obligatory homework

Table of results

creating a graph

The next step:

Application of the graph (different tasks):

The use of the pendulum in a mechanical clock.

Did we really waste our time (3 lessons) with such a simple thing as the pendulum?

Children get a millimeter graph paper

and some hints, too:

Expected result:

Common

wrong result:

An unexpected task -

Draw a curve free hand!

Comparison of the created graph

with a graph with calculated values

Why did we measure the number of cycles per 10 s instead measuring time of ten periods?

(for an appropriate body, a thin string and small angles)

The last step:

1st lesson on this topic

2nd lesson on this topic

3rd lesson of this topic

Comments

Checking the homework

Is it possible to measure the real impact of this approach on the pupils’ thinking?

Why teachers work in the same way as pupils?

re-learning physics from the beginning

own experience with active learning

experience with own misconceptions

higher tolerance to students’ mistakes

during a teaching-learning process

understanding the necessity of a safety atmosphere in the classroom

Several types of seminars for teachers:

Cycles of seminars for new participants

(in the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

Common seminars for experienced teachers

(usually one specific topic, not only on the "basic level")

Regional seminars organized by authorized teachers (the topic depends on their arrangement)

"dining room"

"sleeping rooms"

A cycle of 10 weekend seminars

(Friday evening - Sunday noon)

in two school years

voluntary

free of charge

informal (accommodation at school)

focused on -

new approach to teaching

basic physics knowledge and its application

personal development of participants

games and other activities suitable

for work with children

2. A figure shows a convex lens (a magnifying glass), positions of its focal points and a general ray approaching the lens. Draw the ray after it passes through the lens.

3. In a little pool, there is a small boat with an anchor inside the boat. We mark the level of water at the wall of the pool. How does this level change if we drop the anchor to the bottom of the pool?

a) The level of water rises

b) The level stays the same

c) The level of water falls

Select the right variant, please:

4. First figure shows a pendulum hanging at rest. In the second figure, there is a moving pendulum shown just at the moment when it goes through the lowest point of its trajectory. Draw the net forces acting on the pendulum in both cases.

Why do we start learning physics from the beginning - from the first lesson in the 6th class?

Solution

Rectilinear motion with a constant velocity

F = 0 (1st Newton law)

Experiment determines it:

The topic - Measurement of time

(the 7th class, pupils age about 13):

Topic: Motion

The topic

"Physics

and Chemistry"

Excursion to the faculty - Cavendish experiment

The topic

"Quantum physics"

Excursion to Meopta -

a global manufacturer of precision optics

Several examples:

Several examples

The topic

"Forces"

The topic

"Acoustics"

The topic

"Meteorology"

We did not waste time!

What did pupils (about age 12) do during those three lessons?

An annual conference for all participants of the Heureka Project and for guests from abroad, too.

Main characteristics of the conference

Conference is organized as a set of (usually 18) workshops prepared and led by teachers

Workshops have very different topics

No invited speakers, no lectures, and no formal meetings

More than 100 participants

Accommodation at school

Free of charge

Families of participants are welcome

**Bonus**

One excellent idea of Zdeněk Polák, the head of the conference The Heureka Workshops:

You can determine the mass of a coin, a ring, etc. using only

- a piece of paper

- a pin

- a ruler (for measuring the length)

1st step:

We need a weight

format A0 (1m²).................................80 g

format A4 = 1/16 from A0 ..............80 g/16 = 5 g

2nd step:

We need scales

(When a child did not hear my hints well)

(Children are really

very surprised)

It is very similar

to the linear graph

3rd step:

Find the center of mass of the paper (T)

Choose the point for an axis of rotation (A), the distance a = /TA/ should be about 4-5 cm

4th step:

Put a coin (a ring,..) on scales, find its right place for equilibrium

5th step:

Example

(my ring):

Results - Czech coins

(Measured on a Heureka seminar, November 2012)

List of workshops

The 12th conference The Heureka Workshops 2013

October 4. - 6.

mass of one sheet of paper is 5 g

Use a pin as a axis of rotation. Now you have a scales, where on one side (in the point T) is a mass 5 g (mass of the paper), on the other side you will put a measured body.

Find the precise solution, not any approximation.

We will vote what solution (according to you) is right.

1. A car of mass 2500 kg goes up a hill (with a gradient 10%) for two minutes at speed 50 km/h. A figure presents its position after one minute. Draw the net force (i. e. a sum of all forces) acting on the car.

Solution:

2. A figure shows a convex lens (a magnifying glass), positions of its focal points and a general ray approaching the lens. Draw the ray after it passes through the lens.

Find the precise solution, not any approximation.

Solution:

Choose a source of the ray, find the image of the source, the general ray goes to this image (as all other rays passing through the lens).

3. In a little pool, there is a small boat with an anchor inside the boat. We mark the level of water at the wall of the pool. How does this level change if we drop the anchor to the bottom of the pool?

a) The level of water rises

b) The level stays the same

c) The level of water falls

Select the right variant, please:

Solution:

4. First figure shows a pendulum hanging at rest. In the second figure, there is a moving pendulum shown just at the moment when it goes through the lowest point of its trajectory. Draw the net forces acting on the pendulum in both cases.

Solution:

First situation - the pendulum is at rest, so the net force F = 0 (1st Newton law)

Second situation - the pendulum moves along the circle, the net force is centripetal.

- Thinking about a mechanical clock

- Story about Galileo and a lamp

in a church

- Investigation of a pendulum

Galileo Galilei

A small group of teachers in 90s

Finding how to teach physics in a more active and interesting way

No connection to official pedagogy in that time,

but our empirical approach shares many characteristics with modern pedagogical approaches

(a dot graph Number of ten cycles/length)

2.A motorboat has a speed of 20 metres per second and it takes it 40 min to travel the distance between two ports. How far are the ports? What time does this journey take to a slower boat, which goes at a speed of 10 km per hour?

3.The bus went 0,5 hour at a speed of 50 km per hour, next 20 km went at 40 km per hour, then it stood still for half an hour. Then it covered the remaining 100 km at a speed of 50 km per hour. Calculate how many kilometres it covered in total and how long did it take (including the rest). Calculate average speed of this motion. Draw a graph showing the distance-time dependence.

4.You can see a photo of a guidepost on which distances are given in hours, not in kilometers. Explain in which regions it is used and the reason for it.

5.Design some processes, the speed of which makes sense to measure in:

a) cm per hour

b) liter per minute

c) kg per year

d) mm per year.

6.Write a story for the graph:

Comments

Common tasks

Application of knowledge in new situations, children have not solved these tasks before.

- What bodies probably move? (according to their velocity)

- How their movement looks like?

Children have to think about:

Create a short story.

Comments to teachers who want to use my tasks:

"Be careful. It is not fair to give those tasks to your students in case you use traditional approach of teaching. You cannot require them to think in test, if you do not require their thinking in lessons."

Verification:

The measurement error of

the paper scales is less than 3%!

mass of the ring is 3.29 g

Voluntary seminars for students

- future physics teachers

Electricity and magnetism step by step

Optics step by step

The Heureka seminar

(one semester, 2 hours/week, about 24 hours together)

(4 semesters, 2 hours/week, about 96 hours together)

(one semester, 2 hours/week, about 24 hours together)

**Work with teachers**

and future teachers

and future teachers

Gorazd Planinsic, Phys. Ed., January 2012

Elizabeth Swinbank, Phys. Ed., January 2005

The Heureka Workshops

Why do we start learning physics from the beginning - from the first lesson in the 6th class?

Because teachers have some difficulties with these problems very often.

They know physics laws, but often they are not able to apply them.

They do not only start from beginning, but they also work like pupils, I have already mentioned it.

The near future

Heureka started to be supported by

Thanks!

and we are preparing some new activities.

**Thank you for your attention**

1.A child is on a merry-go-round (carousel). What should the child do and how should the merry-go-round behave to accomplish the following situations:

a) the child is at rest with respect to the merry-go-round and in motion with respect to the Earth,

b) the child is in motion with respect to the merry-go-round, at rest with respect to the Earth,

c) the child is in motion with respect to the merry-go-round and to the Earth too

d) the child is at rest with respect to the merry-go-round and with respect to the Earth too.

(I leave the explanation to your discussions.)

Why teachers work in the same way as pupils?

re-learning physics from the beginning

own experience with active learning

experience with own misconceptions

higher tolerance to students’ mistakes

during a teaching-learning process

understanding the necessity of the safety atmosphere in the classroom

7 active Czech teachers were supported to participate in this conference, too.

The 6th cycle started in September 2012, each cycle has had about 25 participants.

Ref: Lawson, A.E. The development and validation of a classroom test of formal reasoning. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING, 1978. 15(1), 11-24.

Deeper pedagogical research in this area will be a topic for a student’s diploma thesis.

Teachers have no formal advantages in their schools.

Their attendance at seminars is a perfect feedback to me.

But it seems that the Heureka approach has some impact to the thinking abilities of students.

Do you know such teachers training?

If yes, you maybe know...

- how to start (by drawing two axes)

- how to calculate a scale

- how to find a dot of graph from the measured values

- draw only dots, not a curve

More difficult calculation, drawing a graph

Simple calculation

Relativity of motion

F = 0

F

Max. number of points 24

Maybe graphs tell more

The Heureka group (N = 374), age 15 - 16

The control group (N = 521), age 15 - 18

age of students 15 - 16

age of students 15 - 18

You are welcome!

(That is why “the teachers’ kindergarten”)

How do we know that our system of teacher training works?

Several teachers repeated the same cycle two or even three times:

"For the first time I learned physics, for the second time I had some time to perceive how you teach. And now, for the third time, I am able to catch and to understand the philosophical background of this approach."

Why did you decide to come for the third time?

c) the level of water falls

m

(apart what was already said)

The difference between means is highly statistically significant.

You have a pendulum 32 cm long. Could you find its number of cycles per 10 second using your graph?

How long should be a pendulum, which is ticking each second?

Checking this type of exam is not easy for teacher. It is necessary to understand pupils’ ideas (sometimes a bit complicated).

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