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The Ear

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Daniela Villegas

on 4 June 2013

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Transcript of The Ear

The Ear Daniela Villegas Morales The Ear The ear is an organ of hearing and balance. It is a part of the auditory system and vestibular system. It collects sound waves, processes them, and then sends them to the brain as impulses. In the brain, they are interpreted as sound. System The ear is a part of the sensory system, which is a part of the nervous system. Nervous System The nervous system is a system that sends signals around the body. It controls the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. Its main organs are the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
The ear sends electromagnetic impulses to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. Sensory System It is the system responsible for processing sensory information. It consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensitivity. Commonly recognized sensory organs are the ones used for vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Parts of the Ear The Pinna The visible part of the ear. It collects sound waves. External Auditory Canal Air-filled canal through which sound travels and is amplified. Eardrum/Tympanic Membrane A thin, flexible membrane that vibrates when sound waves hit it. Ossicles Three small bones that connect the outer ear and the inner ear. Hammer/Malleus Anvil/Incus Stirrup/Stapes The smallest bone in the human body. Middle Ear Cavity Eustachian Tube Air-filled space that surrounds the bones of the middle ear. A tube that connects the middle ear with the nose. It balances the pressure between the air inside the ear and the air outside. Oval & Round Windows The oval window is a membrane that connects the middle ear with the upper half of the cochlea.The round window is a membrane that connects the middle ear with the lower half of the cochlea.
Semicircular Canals Three loops that contain fluid. The fluid flows when the head moves, balancing the body. Cochlea A bony spiral-shaped cavity that is filled with fluid. It contains the Organ of Corti. Organ of Corti Contain 15,000 to 20,000 microscopic hairs that move when the fluid in the cochlea passes. Vestibular Cochlear Nerve/Auditory Nerve These nerves carry electrical signals from the hair in the Organ of Corti to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. Sound waves enter the ear through the Pinna, and into the auditory canal. The waves make the eardrum vibrate. The eardrum’s vibration causes the ossicles to move back and forth. The footplate of the stapes moves in and out of the oval window. The movement of the footplate sets the fluid in motion, and it fills the cochlea. The fluid causes the hairs of the Organ of Corti to move. The movement stimulates the hairs, which send impulses along the auditory nerve, and into the brain. The impulses are interpreted as sound. The Process of Hearing Measuring Sound Loudness is measured in decibels (dB), the force of sound waves against the eardrum. Intensity of Sounds
A Pin Dropping..........................................................10 dB
Ticking Clock..............................................................20 dB
Whisper........................................................................30 dB
Normal Speech............................................................50-60 dB
Shower..........................................................................70 dB
Alarm Clock.................................................................80 dB
Lawn Mower...............................................................90 dB
Inside a Subway Car...............................................95 dB
Emergency Vehicle Siren.......................................115 dB
Balloon Popping..........................................................125 dB
Jet Engine Takeoff...............................................140 dB
Shotgun.........................................................................160 dB
Rocket Launch...........................................................180 dB
Sound Waves become Shock Waves.................195 dB Hearing Loss Loud noises, infections, head injuries, brain damage, old age, and genetic diseases may cause people to lose some or all of their ability to hear. There four are levels of hearing loss:

Mild hearing loss: 25 - 39 dB.

Moderate hearing loss: 40 - 69 dB.

Severe hearing loss: 70 - 94 dB.

Profound deafness: 95 dB+ Hearing Loss There are two types of hearing loss, conductive and sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss is often reversible, sensorineural is not. Conductive Hearing Loss Sensorineural Hearing Loss Sound waves are blocked from the eardrum or the inner ear. This may be caused by ear wax in the auditory canal, fluid buildup in the middle ear, ear infections or abnormal bone growth. There is damage to the auditory nerve. This type of hearing loss is often permanent. This type of hearing loss may be caused by old age, head injury, birth defects, high blood pressure, stroke, or usually loud noises. Presbycusis Hearing loss that occurs gradually as you age. About 30-35 percent of adults between the ages of 65 and 75, and 40-50 percent of people 75 and older have presbycusis. People with this desiese often lose the ability to hear high-pitched sounds, not low. Noise Induced Hearing Loss Is a type of sensorineural hearing loss, it occurs when too much sound intensity is transmitted into ear, more specifically the cochlea. The hair cells of the Organ of Corti in the cochlea are damaged by loud sounds, and once damaged they do not grow back. The ear is exposed to excessive sound levels or loud sounds over time. Acoustic Trauma It is permanent cochlear damage from a one-time exposure to an excessively loud sound. Acoustic trauma can be caused by sounds like an explosion, firecrackers, and shotgun. Gradually Developing It is cochlear damage from repeated exposure to loud sounds over a period of time. Gradually developing can be caused by multiple exposures to any source of excessive volume, such as home and vehicle stereos, concerts, nightclubs, excessive noise in the workplace, and personal media players. Cochlear Implants Technology to restore hearing is much more advanced than restoring any other sense. A device called a cochlear implant can restore hearing by replacing the damaged hair cells with a wire that is implanted in the cochlea. The surgery permanently damages the cochlea, but cochlear implants improve hearing, even in people who are profoundly deaf. However, despite the improvement with language, cochlear implants do not work with music. The main problem is pitch perception because with cochlear implants perception is off about two octaves. References 1.Choi, Y., Hu, H., Mukherjee, B., Miller, J., & Park, S. (2012). Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(11), 1544-1550. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104863
2.Joseph, A. (2013). Cochlear Implant in an Ambulatory Surgery Center. AANA Journal, 81(1), 55.
3.Limb, C. (2011, October). Charles Limb: Building the musical muscle [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/charles_limb_building_the_musical_muscle.html
4.Ear - 3D Medical Atlas - - The Nebraska Medical Center | Omaha, NE. (n.d.). The Nebraska Medical Center | Omaha, NE . Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://www.nebraskamed.com/health-library/3d-medical-atlas/topic/16/ear
5.Nave, R. (n.d.). The Ear and Hearing.HyperPhysics. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/eari.html#c3
6.The Ear (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Definition, Conditions, and More. (2009, July 1). WebMD - Better information. Better health.. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/brain/picture-of-the-ear
7.Chudler, E. (n.d.). Neuroscience for Kids - The Ear. UW Faculty Web Server. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/bigear.html
8.Matusewic, D. (n.d.). Anatomy of the Ear.Welcome to Wisc-Online.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013, from http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=ap1502
9.Noise-Induced Hearing Loss . (n.d.).National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders [NIDCD] . Retrieved May 31, 2013, from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/noise.aspx
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