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Chapter 1 - Psychology

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April M

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 1 - Psychology

Psychology
Mind
Behavior
Study of
- inner experiences, perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings
- observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
Nativism
Philosophical view that certain knowledge is innate or inborn
an example might be that of children in every culture learning that sounds form words, and that words can form sentences
Plato (428-327 BC)
Empiricism
Philosophical view that all knowledge acquired through experience
"tabula rasa" (blank slate)
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
350 BC
student of
teacher of
0 AD
1600
Dualism
Body and soul (brain and mind) are fundamentally different
Rene Descartes (1595-1650)
1700
1800
1900
Phrenology
Mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific brain regions
More traits/abilities = larger corresponding bumps on skull which could be measured (defunct theory)
Franz Joseph Gall ( 1758-1828)
Physiology
Study of biological processes, especially the human body
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1821-94)
estimated nerve impulse speed when he found that it took longer for people to respond to toe stimulation than to thigh stimulation
Stimulus
- sensory input from environment
Reaction Time
for
applied
measured
Structuralism
Approach to psychology that analyzes the basic elements that constitute the mind
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
history of
used
Introspection
subjective observation of one's own experience
is a method of studying
Consciousness
a person's subjective experience of the world and mind
is an aspect of
Functionalism
Approach to psychology that studies the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
William James (1842-1910)
Inspired by
Natural Selection
features that help an organism survive and reproduce are more likely than others to be passed on to subsequent generations
Charles Darwin
(1809-82)
Credited with evolutionary theory
Wrote "Origin of Species"
proposed
Gestalt Psychology
Approach to psychology that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of parts
diametrically opposed to
Illusions
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
lead to
Psychoanalytic theory
Freud's approach to psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
Unconsciousness
part of the mind that operates outside of awareness
is an aspect of
influences
basis of
Psychoanalysis
therapy designed to understand psychological disorders
by bringing
to
basis of
Humanistic Psychology
Approach to psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Behaviorism
Approach to psychology that restricts itself to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
is concerned with
is NOT concerned with
- an action or physiological change
Response
elicited by
- amount of time taken
Reinforcement
likelihood of a behavior occurring again
determined by consequences of
Cognitive Psychology
Scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
1950
is concerned with
is less concerned with
Behavioral Neuroscience
Approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
Cognitive Neuroscience
Approach that attempts to understand links between cognitive processes and brain activity
Evolutionary Psychology
Approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time
is based on
Cultural Psychology
Studies how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
Social Psychology
Studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
Full transcript