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Editing Report

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Kirstin Rawlings

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Editing Report

In the beginning – when motion pictures started what did they do before physically cutting the film?
Originally editing was a concept used to create a short film that did not necessarily tell a story but made some sense, this became a popular technique to film a pre-rehearsed performance all in one place where they would use the same camera and rely on the camera lens to stop and start in a stationary area,as patnomine had improved throughout the years previous to film they were able to perfect the performance before filming in order to capture the story as best they could. This means that each take had to be perfect otherwise they would have to go back and re-do the scenes they had filmed after.The technology of the past was not as up-to-date as nowadays, which also meant that they were un-able not pause and resume filming or film for a particularly long amount of time, this meant that most original movies were roughly ten minutes long as this was the amount of time the camera could record for. By closing the lens caps when they wanted to move the camera they were able to move the shot on swiftly, this meant that you could hear 'cranking'at the beginning and end of a shot.Most original films were recorded with a stationary camera, so that they could capture the entire story in just one place at one point of time.
Who “invented” editing? When? Why?
It is believed that Edwin Porter was the founder of editing clips in a different and more inventive technique
which has now lead to modern editing. He came up with the diverse idea of filming in shots,which meant the story was told in scenes which would have more of a storyline to it, as they didn't have to film all in one go, in a stationary place, they were able to have more freedom with what they wanted to capture the editing was all done in film strips cutting out any scenes that went wrong and sticking it back together.This was the original idea of cutting out any un-wanted scenes, to include the best shots that fitted well with the storyline.
Give examples of film editing machines and differences?
The first well-known successful editing machine was called a 'Moviola' which was used for motion picture editing as you could edit the footage and the editor could see the footage whilst he was editing which was a vast improvement from the original days when you had to edit 35mm film strips by hand. Iwan Serrurier was the inventer of the traditional editing machine it was only ever used for high budget films as it was an expensive machine at the time even though it was originally designed as being a home projecter in the 1917's it wasn't until 1924 that the machine was finally made and designed for an editors benefit. The machine was described as being similair to a sewing machine as it provided the editor with a clear view of each film and sound strip so that they could cut the clips at the correct point. The tradiotional machine can be desrcibed as a more delicate way of editing footage as it takes time and precision as they would use a specially designed pen that was simliar to chalk to mark any frames or to cut and splic the workprints this is said by many to have been a more precise editing technqiue in comparison to other eiting machines.

'Steenbeck' is another editing machine.However, it is a 'Flatbed' machine which means that the picture and sound are put onto seperate wheels/plates moving round in order to synchronise the footage and audio together, the footage is played onto a filming screen whilst the audio is read through a magnetic playback head. The editing machine was created by Willhelm Steenbeck which he founded in 1931, sources such as Wikepedia claim that over 25,000 machines are still in operation to this day. It is said to be a more quiet,and subtle way of editing footage in the 1900's in comparison to the moviola, as the Steenbeck was able to synchronise the sound and footage in a way that was seen as more believavle for viewers in comparison to the original editing machine-Moviola. The Steenbeck was more diverse as it was able to edit not only 35mm film strips aswell as 16 mm strips. One well knwn edtior that has previously edited using the Steenbeck (Ralph Arlyck) describes the machine "An eight-plate Steenbeck, with its brushed nickel and blue finish, wide whirling aluminum plates, and slide-out circuit boards." where he edited his well known short film/documentary-Following Sean. As times have changed both machines have had qualities taken and adapted to make modern editing as skilled and successful as it is to this day, it has been adapted through the years to create editing technqiues that weren't even considered in the early 1900's. The moviola could be considered the making of editing,which has been changed and improved through time to reach a more realistic and stuble way of putting individual scenes together.

How is film picture and sound synchronised?

How was video tape edited?
Linear editing is known as the original way of editing tapes which was refferred to as Tape-to-tape editing this was done in the ninetneen hundreds this meant that the only way of editing the footage was if it was in sequence,as it had to be in order it was edited by creating a copy of a copy. However, the fault in this editing technique was that constantly copying each tape meant that the quality of the footage decreased each time in comparison to the original tape once the finished tape was completed it was refferred to as the 'master' .One example of linear editing used in the 1990's was using two different cameras and recording the footage individually onto two different tapes and when editing they would edit in seuqence switching between the two different shots this was called 'Video Switcher' which would involve putting the shots together into a single output this meant that they were able to add simple editing techniques such as fade in's and dissolves between shots.Linear editing is still used to this day but for Live television but has beeen adapted however as it is live television it remains in sequence.

What are the differences between editing on film, tape editing and computer editing? (eg digital, analogue, linear, non-linear)
Linear is an editing technique which has to remain in sequence, in comparison to Non-Linear which is reffered to as 'digital' which is the modern way of editing film as it is described as a vore 'natrual way to edit it is editing digitally usually as a file which is different to linear editing which is editing using tapes, this means that when editing non-linear it already comes with the timecodes and you only need to re-name the shots it makes cutting out any un-necessary footage easier, as it is providind easy access at the click of a button. When the shots have been imported onto a computer it can be edited at anytime, it doesn't have to be in-sequence editing. Non-linear is better quality than linear as it isn't a copy of a copy it is editing the original therefore the quality is not decreasing in anyway. Nowadays,non-linear editing can even be done at hove using a standard PC with the right software such as Final Cut Pro or Imovie.
Analytical editing is a style which is clear for the audeince to watch, therefore providing all the shots needed in order to understand the storyline as clearly as possible, this would be done by using a simple wide shot which can be seen has 'setting the scene' for the viewer followed by a medium shot which could be used to define the main character or show a siginifcant character in the story which then would be followed by a close up focusing on something that has relevence to the story so that the viewer knows that it has an important part to play in the film/programme.This is used so frequently that the audience are un-aware of the simple shots and how significant they are to understand the main plot as it is giving the audience all the infromation needed. This is particularly different to synthetic editing which doesn't edit shots in a particular way, it follows a stroy-board but isn't making the storyline as unuderstanding in comparison to analgoue, this would commonly be used in murder mysteries as they want to make the audience intrigued and build up curiosity in order to contiune watching, this editing technique helps 'shock' the audience and can be described as 'keeping them on their feet at all times' the shots used with this editing style are usually more detailed rather than making it clear where to focus. Continuity Editing Analysis of The short documenatry/film follows the
story of a 4 year old boy in the nineteen
hundreds,studying the youngsters childhood. The documentary begins by introducing the boy in a simple,light-hearted technique
showing the relationship between the boy and the interviewee is relaxed. The documentary remains on the boy for the entire 15 minutes switching between clips in a fast pace and simple technique. They film the boy using close up shots and medium close ups, they switch between pre-recorded shots and shots from the same angle of the boy being interviewed in his house. Cross Cutting and Parellel Editing In camera editing- This is 'Life of American Fireman' by Edwin Porter which was made in 1903 before the moviola was created for editing.This is an example of in-camera editing as all the editing is done whilst filming with the use of the camera, they have pre-rehearsed the shot and filmed it to perfection where they would turn the camera off at the correct point and follow on to the next shot. This means the film uses no cuts or fade in's which takes planning in order to get the shots in the correct order. Kirstin Rawlings Editing
Report Editing provides an opportunity to shape and adapt footage, to add effects and modify clips to fit a specific story, editing clips means the footage flows better and can be filmed in any order. Editing is part of post-production as it is after the clips have been filmed. The technology Through the years editing footage has been adapted and improved drastically in comparison to when editing recorded footage was by hand with film strips as to nowadays where we use software such as FinalCutPro to edit our footage.
There is also many technique to editing and rules that are followed which have been learnt through time.
They have considered many different aspects when filming a shot, such as 180 degree rule and the pace/ time of the shot in order to keep the audience interested in the scene and what the characters are saying. Sometimes specific rules are broken purposely in order to keep the viewers on their feet and interested in the scene,for example if there is a long conversation between two characters by braking the 180 degree rule, they are able to keep the audience interested as they have to think the scene through. Sources:http://introtoediting.com/theory.html http://voices.yahoo.com/old-school-film-editing-machines-moviola-steenbeck-6438352.html Following Sean- Ralph Arlyck The camera remains at the same angle for most of the shots,as the technology at the time was limited, the shots jump back and forth not always making a clear change between shots in comparison to films nowadays they use many cut-aways to keep the viewer interested so they aren't focusing on just one scene. One technique that has been used in editing, is when the interviewee tells the boy to 'Clap his hand' which then leads to a shot looking down at the boy,this was a simple shot change that was edited to look more effective as it changes in time the sound of the boy clapping. They have used a voice over for some of the shots, the voice over is still playing the interview, whilst the shots have changed to the boy in the garden. They have also made the pace of the shots faster than the original, as they don't want the audience to lose interest this is real time vs dramatic time- distinguishing a difference between a clip being too slow and speeding the clip up in order to include the shot at a good pace. Continuity is considered an important factor in production and post-production, this usually happens when shots are re-filmed or when combining two different shots to make them look like the same shot, this means that the shots have to remain the same, as the change in each shot becomes noticeabe such as positioning of the actors or a change in outfit/jewelerry which can be seen as in-significant.However, when combining two shots it is more noticeable for the viewer and makes the scene less believable to watch. Cross Cutting: In the film 'Disturbia' they have used cross cutting too make the scene more mysterious and build up the impact as the scene goes on. It isn't until 1:10 that the scenes seperates into two scenes, showing what both characters are doing in the same moment, they have cut between the two shots for impact. This works well as the audience are feeling tense for both characters
as the scenes are cut back and forth between each other they are able to follow both characters without losing interest. I think they have done this because
the scene needs to be edited in a way that makes the
audience feel scared and compelled to continue watching, with cross cutting they are making the viewer pay more attention to what is happening, they have also used faint music in the background which they have edited in for effect. Cross cutting: In the final scene of ' The Boy In the Striped Pajamas' they have used cross cutting to show two peoples reaction to the same scenario, this is to show two significant main characters in the film at the same time to compare the parents different reactions to the death of their son, they have specifically used Cross cutting for this because it makes it easier for the viewer to compare both reactions,as you feel compelled to watch the mother crying by the side of a fence whilst the father is shown standing in shock processing the same scenario. Parralel editing: This is film uses parrelel editing as the two scenes never meet, they are both important elmements of the film but neither scene crosses over. This is a technique that is used in order to show both sides of the story at the same time. It has been used in the film ' The godfather' as a way of surprising the audience, as we second guess the scene and it misleads the viewer into thinking that the two scenes were going to meet.It is hard to find parrelel editing in well-known films as it can confuse the viewer, however I think that this film works well with parrelel editing because it makes the audience feel even more on edge when they realise the police have got the wrong house this has built up the suspense and made the film more gripping to watch. Overall, the difference between cross cutting and parrel editing can be vast in a film as cross cutting is when the two scenes are shown both seperate and then crossing over to have relevance to one another. In comparison to parrellel editing where they have two seperate scenes, showing what is happening at the same time or years apart where the two scenes never meet, it is more risky to use parrelel editing in a film as it is harder to include in a storyline without confusing the viewer. 180 DEGREE RULE This is significant in films when filming a conversation between two characters they need to consider the 180 degree rule,where the camera can't exceed the 180 degree line also called the Axis of Action, determining where the camera can't cross in order to make the film look incoherant as it confuses the viewer as to where the characters are placed, as it can look like the positions have been moved therefore making the scene less believable and accurate. Another aspect of editing that is important nowadays is Real time vs Dramatic time, this is speeding up or slowing down a shot to dramatise the scene. For example, speeding up a fighting scene makes the scene look more fast paced and intense and the moves become more intriguing as they look faster and dangerous.This is all done through the editing process in order to achieve the best scenes as possible.
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