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The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islam
Transcript of The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islam
Caliphate of Cordoba
History of Andalus.
Al- Andulus which means “to become green at the end of the summer’ is referred to territories occupied by the Muslims empire in southern Spain. The civilization spanned between the eighth to the fifteenth century. In 711 the Arabs established control over much of the Iberian Peninsula. Of the Arab conquest, Muslims called the area of the Iberian Peninsula they occupied, "Al-Andulus."
This land called Al-Andulus, hence often called "Andalusia" had at one point included Portugal, Southern France, and the Balearic Islands. Within 3 years, in 714, Muslims had occupied almost all the peninsula. Muslims crossed to Sicily and established control there for 130 years, until Muslim rule fell in 1091 to the Normans. Muslims also established rule in parts of France, but they were soon defeated by Charles Martel in 756. Muslims entered Spain not as aggressors or oppressors, but as liberators. In this multicultural society, many Jews and Christians held government positions.
The Islamic civilization had reached its peak in the 10th century, and by 1100, the number of Muslims rose to 5.6 million.
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was centered on the Umayyad , hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661 CE/41 AH. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sind, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles (15,000,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist
From 929 to 1031, the Caliphate of Córdoba was an Islamic kingdom that ruled Al-Andalus and part of North Africa from the city of Qurtuba
This period was characterized by a large expansion of trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture were constructed during this period, including the Great Mosque of Córdoba. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph in place of his original title Emir of Córdoba Abd-ar-Rahman III was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, one who held the titles of Emir of Córdoba since 756. The rule of the Caliphate is known as the heyday of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula.
The Caliphate disintegrated during a civil war, the Fitna of al-Andalus, between the descendants of the last Caliph Hisham II and the successors of his hayib Al-Mansur. The Caliphate ended in 1031 after years of infighting and fractured into a number of independent Muslim Taifa kingdoms.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania is the initial Islamic Umayyad Caliphate's conquest, between 711 and 788, of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania, centered in the Iberian Peninsula, which was known to them under the Arabic name al-Andalus.