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World Religion Project

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by

Saleha Shahid

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of World Religion Project

World Religion Hinduism
and
Unitarian Universalism By Betty and Saleha HINDUISM Philosophy Religious Text Atman: Internal Soul the belief that all humans have souls
it is distinct from the body and mind Dhama: Duty, Virtue, or Morality there are many interpretations
the power that upholds the universe and society
sva-dhama is the duty and obligation of an individual
example A man and a women's
sva-dhama would be
different, just like a child's
and parents sva-dhama
would be different Varna: Caste System Brahmins: the priests
Kshatrivas: nobles and warriors
Vaishyas: commoners and merchants
Shudras: workers
The caste system is used to delegate responsibilities
example Priest are expected to refrain from
animal sacrifice but this is not the case for warriors. Karma the "what goes around come around'' philosophy Samsara: Reincarnation a continuous cycle where the soul is reborn
the soul can take on a human or non-human form (eg animal) in the next life
who you become in your next life is determined by your karma Purusharha or Moksha: Life Goals Dhama or duty
Worldly gain or profit
Pleasure
Liberation (from the cycle of reincarnation) The Vedas The oldest texts of Hinduism The Rigveda The Samaveda Yajurveda Atharvaveda Hymns and Prayer hymns and prayers arranged in forms of chants Deals with sacrifice Ways of worship used by ancient priest and some hymns Other Holy Books The Upanishads
Puranas
Kamasutra
The Mahabhartara
The Ramayama
Brahmanas and Aranyakas It is the 3rd largest religion in the world with15% of the world as followers.
It is widely practiced in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sir Lanka, and South Africa. Observances Holiday they include:
Ganesh Chaturthi
Hanuman Jayanti
Krishna Janmashtami
Mahashivratri
Makar Sankranti
Navaratri
Raksha Bandhan
Rama Navami
Swaminarayan Jayanti
Thaipusam
Vaisakhi
Varsha Pratipada
Diwali
Holi Diwali is the festival of light and last for over 5 days. It stands for the renewal of hope, commitment, and goodwill. The festival is famous for fireworks and lamps. Holi is celebrated in March and is often referred to as the festival of colors. During Holi there is no distinction of caste, class, age, and gender. The festival includes dancing, singing, and throwing around colors. Stop at 1:30 Clothing There is no rules about clothing. However the priest tend to dress similarly to one another. Forms of Worship The different forms of puja (aka worship)
Offerings to the gods such as sweets or flowers. It is given back to other followers and this is known as Prasad
Arti: a lamp or candle is lit as a gift of light to god
Darshana: gazing at an image of a god or goddess, who in return looks back at them
Pilgrimages: Popular locations for pilgrimage include any of the seven holy cities (Varanasi, Ujjain, Dwarka, Kanchipuram, Ayodhya, Mathura, and Hardwar) or the holy rivers (the Ganges, Kaveri, and Godavari)
Other forms of worship include; prayer (reciting chants or verses from the Hindu scriptures), mantras (chants), and songs Rituals Many of the Hinduism rituals deals with marriage, death, and prayer Marriage UNITARIAN UNIVERSALISM The engagement and wedding day is determined by the priest (for an auspicious day)
The ceremony takes place outside under a canopy around a fire (only the priest, bride and groom sit by the fire)
the parents wash hands and feet of bride and groom and apply flowers
They exchange rings
Bride and groom walk around the fire four times
Groom presents bride's brother with gift
Bride and groom feed each other sweets
Groom's mother put Mugalsutra necklace on bride Philosophy members don't "believe" anything, they:
-support freedom of religious thought
-base religious ideas on rational thought
-form principles from conscience, thinking and experience
-right to seek truth and meaning for themselves
-best setting for finding religious truth is a community Death Body is usually cremated (exception for infants, they are buried)
Closest relative of the deceased (usually eldest son) performs the final rite, the cremation, and light the funeral pyre
The ashes and remains are taken to a holy river
Everyone except the immediate family take a purifying bath
The family stay in this state for a set number of days Observances Holidays Origin Important Individuals Key Events Among all the gods there are three principal god
Brahma (the creator)
Vishnu (the preserver)
Shiva (the destroyer) Other gods include:
Ganesha
Krishna
Rama
Hanuman
Lakshmi
Durga
Kali
Saraswat Time For Hindus there is no beginning or end. They believe that time is divided into aeons called mahayagas. It lasts for 4.32 million years. Each aeon begins with the recreation of the world and then the destruction followed by this cycle again. Members celebrate holidays from different religions (ex. Christmas, Passover, Winter Solace, etc. Religious Texts Unitarian Universalists do not have a religious text that they follow; they respect all religions and therefore accept different religious texts. However; they read and reference the Bible, though they do not read it for religious guidance. Locations Practiced Major Congressess in: Argentina, Australia and New Zealand, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Canada, Congo, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Europe, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Phiippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, and Uganda Three holidays unique to Unitarian Universalists are: Chalica, Flower Communion, and Water Communion Chalica:
-celebration of principles
-week long celebration starting on the first Monday of December
-a chalice is lit everyday
Flower Communion:
-a flower is brought by each person
-meant to symbolize how no two people are alike Prayers The recommended steps of prayer are:
lighting a chalice
calming and centering
saying and personalizing a prayer
extinguishing the chalice Services held on Sundays
Sermons based on other religious prints and personal experiences
Sharing Joys and Sorrows/Concerns while lighting a candle
mediation and prayers
symbol: flaming chalice 1,296,000 864,000 1,728,000 432,000 a period of a period of a period of a period of Krita Yuga Treta Yuga Dwapar Yuga Kali Yupa The first known yuga
The world was filled with men and gods
Average human lifespan was 100,000
relationship with God can be attained through meditation Average human lifespan is 10,000 years
A decay of morality is present in this time period
Relation between God can be attained through sacrifice Average human lifespan is 1,000 years
Fight betwwen Virtue and Vice
Humans begin to loose touch with themseleves and their spirituality
Relationship with God can be attained through temple worship Average hunman lifespan is 100 years
Humanity has lost most of it's touch with spirituality
Currently we are 5,000 years into the Kali Yuga according to some scholars Origin Rituals Combination of
Unitarianism + Universalism (Oneness of God) (Lasting truth found in every religion) Unitariansm
16th Century (Protestant Reformation)
Transylvania (first Unitarian Congregation)
Frances David: "We need not think alike to love alike"
John Sigismund
Mid-1700s: different ideas on sin and salvation caused splits Universalism
America
John Murray: first church
officially organized in 1793
spread -> Eastern USA and Canada Coming together...
both were involved in social justice movements
combination = stronger voice Holy Places Headquarters in Boston Practices lighting the chalice
peace projects, social action initiatives and humanitarian efforts Ganesha Krishna Rama Hanuman Lakshmi Durga Kali Saraswati Open-minded and individualistic approach to religion to make own conclusions about beliefs and doubts God:
-one person, not 3 (do not believe in the doctrine of Trinity or full divinity of Jesus) social change & unity
-oneness, dualism, and evil Water Communion
-each person brings water from a special place
-the water is added to a large bowl
-symbol of shared faith Joys and Sorrows/Concerns
-candles are lit
-members share stories of their personal lives
-youth and young children Flaming Chalice THE END
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