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MEDIEVAL ERA IN ENGLAND
Transcript of MEDIEVAL ERA IN ENGLAND
Luis G. Buitrago
Manuel Llano HISTORICAL CONTEXT 1066-1485 NORMAN INVASION Death of Edward the Confessor, king of England. 1066 Harold II was crowned King of England. William, duke of Normandy, wanted the throne for himself.
Relative of king Edward. Launched an invasion with French and Norman troops. Battle of Hastings 1. Harold II is killed.
2.William conquers London Anglo Saxon rule ends. Normans control England Descendants of the Vikings. Spoke Norman French.
Brought feudalism to England. CONSEQUENCES OF THE NORMAN INVASION Transition from Old English to Middle English. Norman French became the language of the government. Feudalism. Feudalism No central power was capable of providing security. Kingdoms were divided into territories ruled by lords or overlords. Lords: exchanged their property for services from those who received the land. Vassals: those who accepted the lord´s property in return of services. Barons: special kind of vassals. Took care of land assigned to them by their overlord.
Fiefs. In war supplied his overlord with knights. Barons assigned each knight a manor Basic community of feudalism.
Mostly self sufficient Serfs: peasants who worked in manors. Overlord Barons
Clergy Knights Serfs SOCIAL STRUCTURE Taxes The clergy´s source of authority wasn´t the overlord. 1154: Norman rule ends when Henry Plantagenet is crowned as Henry II. Opposes the church´s power, which kept growing. Names Thomas Becket, his friend, as a "puppet" Archbishop of Canterbury. Becket doesn´t act as Henry II expected.
Henry is infuriated and Becket is murdered Pilgrimage to Canterbury: integrity and devotion. 1215: The Magna Carta King John wanted to improve the kingdom´s finances. Radical increase of taxes. Barons disagreed, taking England to the verge of a civil war John was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his barons. Base of all modern constitutional governments.
The first time in which an absolute monarch faced restrictions. Life in Towns: Cities were controlled by guilds Merchant´s and Craft guilds were the most important. The Black Death:
33% of England´s population is killed. 1348: In one year. FALL OF FEUDALISM 1. Black Death
2. Peasant´s desire for change. 3. Attack on the Church John Wycliffe: 1. Church had traveled far away from its roots.
2. Clergy shouldn´t be wealthy.
3. Religious authority = Bible.
4. Religion should be accessible.
-Translation of the Bible. War of the Roses Henry VI was removed from power.
House of Lancaster
Richard of York replaced him The Lancastrians declared a civil war, but were defeated. Years later Henry Tudor rebells against the Yorkists. He wins the civil war and creates the House of Tudor by marrying a Yorkist woman. The creation of the House of Tudor represents the end of the Middle Ages in England 1455-1485 Code of chivalry:
""A Knyght ther was, and that was a worthy man
That fro the tyme that he first bigan
To riden out, he loved chivalrie,
Trouthe and honour, freedom and courteisie."
Geoffrey Chaucer Literary Movements "But the age of chivalry is gone. That of sophisters, economists, and calculators has succeeded; and the glory of Europe is extinguished forever."
"Some say that the age of chivalry is past, that the spirit of romance is dead. The age of chivalry is never past, so long as there is a wrong left unredressed on earth."
Charles Kingsley Types of Writing Types of Literature Secular Religious Women´s Literature Religious -Dominant
-Intellectual center of society
-Jewish literature Secular -Courtly love (nobly and chivalry)
-Travel Literature (Canterbury Tales) Women's Literature -Not equal with men
-Religious writing (nuns)
-Reflections, revelations, and prayers
-Unorthodox Christine de Pizan Allegory Represent or symbolize ideas and concepts Medieval literature relied on allegory to transmit author's morals Chivalry -Code of knightly behavior
-It arose during the Crusades
-Combat against "infidels" and protection of religious pilgrims Associated with loyalty and valor, both on and off the battlefield 13th Century conventions of chivalry
directed that men should honor, serve, and do nothing to displease women. -Women were treated as property
-Marriage among the noble class was a business But knights returning from the crusades had learned a few things from their adversaries, who revered their women Romance Passion was slowly being accepted with the rituals of courtly love Troubadours popularized the ideal of chivalry in songs of gallant knights They were written in Romance that is why they are called romances Lyrics -Express feelings
-Secular and religious Ballads Folk song that tells a story Forms of writing Iambic Pentameter -Particular rhythm that the words establish in that line
-Rhythm is measured syllables (feet)
-Iambic pentameters have 5 feet