Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Causes First World War WITHOUT ANSWERS

The Origins of the First World War WITHOUT ANSWERS
by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 30 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Causes First World War WITHOUT ANSWERS

c) The struggle for China p. 270 -271
1. COLONIAL RIVALRY
1815-1870 Only ...........and........... interested in colonial Empire.
From 1870 other European states started to colonize ........... and ...........

a) Causes of New Imperialism. p. 266 -268
b) The Scramble for Africa p. 269
Economic Motivation
Imperialism meant large profits for ............ . ........... stated that imperialism was a result of modern capitalism dominated by ........... (big businesses). However Britain had ........... but few........... . Furthermore European combines did not always support their country’s ........... policy.
Powers were searching for ........... and protecting their ........... with ........... .Actually colonies did not supply many ........... and did not increase the mother country’s ........... because the colonial people had little ........... .Most countries however saw ........... in colonies.

e)
Germany’s Weltpolitik
p. 274
The Franco-Russian Alliance p. 273
TURKEY, BOSNIA and the BLACK SEA 1908
d)
Anglo-German relations 1890-96
p.273
b)
Germany’s “new course

a) 1908 The Bosnian crisis p. 277 and the Balkans
i) The Triple Entente
g) The Anglo-French Entente p. 275
a) Bismarck’s legacy p.272
S. Trent
2. EUROPEAN RELATIONS 1890 -1907
More Alliances p. 275
Germany - France - Russia - Britain
Britain and France did not want to get involved
in the ...........
controversies in China

- In 1904 an agreement (...........) settled their : ...........
British supermacy in ........... , Morocco= French ...........
The entente had serious consequences for............

c) The Second Moroccan crisis 1911 p. 278
Application Software and Web Technology
- Revolt in ..........., Morocco 1911 ........... sent troops.
- Germany sent warship, the ..........., to protect German citizens but really to demand from ........... territorial compensation in Africa. In return Germany wld recognise French protectorate over ........... Germany asked for the whole of French ............ .’. ........... fleet was put in alert. Germany and France signed an agreement by which ........... gained only strips of land in French ............

h) The First Moroccan crisis 1905-106
p. 276
j) The situation in 1907 p.277
3) INCREASING TENSION 1908-1913 p.277
Anglo-Russian agreement for partition of Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia) p. 276
WHO OR WHAT WAS TO BLAME FOR THE FIRST WORLD WAR?
On ............, Archduke Francis Fedinand , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in.......... . Within........all Europe was ........... .
Comparison of strengths of European powers 1900 p. 265l
Largest population: ........... /smallest population: ...........
Largest army: ........... /smallest army:...........
Largest amount of foreign trade: ........... /smallest amount of foreign trade ...........
Largest merchant fleet: .........../smallest merchant fleet: ...........
Largest navy: ........... / smallest navy: ...........
Which was Europe’s strongest power, which its weakest? ........... /....

Colonies 1800
Colonies 1900
ii) Security p. 267
France looked for prestige by occupying colonial territories. ‘. Britain expanded her colonial conquests eg. Occupied........... , then Sudan to protect ........... .
iii) Nationalism
Colonies = ........... .’. nationalistic masses supported. ........... .
Social Darwinism took Darwin’s ideas on ...........and applied them to........... .
Countries were in continuous struggle to predominate only ........... survived.
iv) Humanitarian concerns
“advanced” countries had to bring “civilization” to savages. See Conrad’s Heart of Darkness vs.
Kipling’s The White Man’s Burden theory
v) Unplanned actions
eg. France’s empire in ......resulted from the work of .....

a) Causes of New Imperialism. p. 266 -268
The scramble for Africa = ........... from ...........
Troublespots in 1890’s =
• ........... Italian army defeated at Adowa (Ethiopia) – forced to acknowledege ...........
• Anglo-French war........... in 1898, British victory.’.French gave up claims ........... .
• Anglo-Boer War ........... over control of gold fields in, ........... South

British soldiers during the Anglo Boer War
in the Transvaal
• 1895-1905 International rivalry in ...........
• ...........businesses were competing to get ........... for ........... .
• Russia wanted control over..........., Japan also interested in ...........
• Japan won victory over China 1894-5 .’. Russia alarmed, Japan abandoned expansionist aims.
• Russia .’. built railway across..........., got contract for Liaotung peninsular and............
• Other powers: “spheres of influence” =Germany - East China, Britini -..........., France –............ Anti foreigner riots, e.g: ........... 7 week........... in Peking. International force marched on Peking. Britain and USA now opted for open- door policy i.e. foreign powers would give up........... in their ...........
• Britain obtained more concessions ...........
• Russo-Japanese war 1894 = Japanese victory: occupied..........., Port Arthur and destroyed............ Korea became Japanese sphere of influence and Russia lost possibility of dominating. ........... .

The Triple Alliance
Main concern was the ...........of German Empire through............’.

- Reduced friction in the ...........by maintaining relations with ............
- ...... with Austria: mutual help in case of attack from Russia

- 1882 Triple Alliance: ..............

- 1887 B signed ........... Treaty with ........... to prevent Russia from allying with ...........

- .’. kept France isolated, agreements with Austria-Hungary and Russia, good terms with Britain

- = security and ........... of peace for Germany.

Bismarck successor Caprivi:

- Rejected Russia’s request for renewal of. ...........

- ...........Anglo-German agreement: Germany got..........., gave up rights in favour of Britain of ............

- France wanted a specific alliance with........... against ...........

- Russia wanted a general agreement against........... .’. 2 separate ...........

- 1891 ........... political intent . Russia and France wld hv common imperial policy

- ...........military convention, mutual support in case of attack from........... .

- Germany faced a war on ........... (agst.....)

Britain did not want a formal agreement with. ........... .
By 1896 Anglo-German relations ........... . Kaiser William sent a telegram to the Boer President, ........... supporting ........... from Britain.


President Paul Kruger
British uniform @ beginning of war
British uniform @ end of war
- Weltpolitik = ........... . Emphasis on ........... .
- William wanted Germany to be ........... :
- aims =
1. Reinforce ........... , creating a strong battle fleet
2. Creation of Central Africa Empire including ........... (belonging to Belgium), ........... (belonging to Portugal).
3. European economic zone including ........... , ........... , ........... .
- three unrelated projects with no ........... amng them.

f) British policy 1898-1902
- Germany’s fleet seen as ........... .’. Britain began a........... .
- In Germany Anglophobia reached its height during the Anglo-Boer war. British public was anti-German.
To control Russia’s expansionist policy in China, Britain signed the 1902 ...........

- Germany ready to cause crisis over ........... becoming French ...........
- ...........William II landed at ........... to maintain its independence from ...........
- ...........demanded an international conference to discuss the question of ............ Real aim = to cancel ............
- The conference met in 1906 at Algeciras. ........... sided with France. Only ........... supported Germany. France ended up by controlling Moroccan ............
- The Moroccan crisis strengthened the ............ Friendship with France = basic policy of Britain’s new ........... under Earl Grey.

- Grey considered Germany ............’. needed to strengthen ...........
- 1906 beginning of ...........agreement on ..........., same problematic areas as today
- Persia divided into . North ..........., south ..........., neutral zone separating ...........
- In ........... and ..........., both imperial powers wld accept the presence of each other.

Germany's main ally was
.........
- *** Geography The Balkan Peninsula named after the ...........is a SOUTH EAST EUROPEAN region.
Countries belonging to The Balkans are commonly considered to be ........... (10 countries).
Most countries: under Ottoman rule during Middle Age, .’. significant ........... population.
Today = largest religion is Orthodox Christianity (e.g.Greece), followed by Catholic Christianity and ............
The Balkans
- Agreement between ...........in 1897 allowed peace in the Balkans for ............
- Beginning of new century, Serbs (under Austria-Hungary ) wanted to unite all Serbs in an independent ............’. wanted to unite Serbs around the Habsburg Empire and in Bosnia-Herzegovina (still ........... but administered by ...........).
- 1903 in Serbia, pro-Austrian Serbian dynasty overthrown by ............ Russia, after failure in China against ..........., turned attention to ............ Wanted her ........... to hv access from the ...........to the ........... via the straits.
- 1908 secret meeting between ...........foreign minister and Austro-Hungarian foreign minister . Austrian minster wanted to annex Bosnia- Herzegovina.
- New Regime in Turkey = Young Turks wanted revival of ........... Empire. 1 aim = restoring ........... to Turkish rule. .’. Young Turks agst ........... annexation to Austria and agst Serbia’s ...........plan.
- Russian foreign Minister secretly agreed to Austria’s annexation of ..........., in return for passage of Russian War ships passing from Black Sea to Mediterranean via ............
The German gunboat "Panther"
Germany's attitude in Agadir 1911
d)
The Balkan Wars
p. 279
- 1911 Italy to colonize ........... (today’s Libya) went to war agst ........... . Italy won war.
- Italian victory encouraged expansionist ambition of small ........... states.
- The Balkan League made up of ...........went to war agst ............ Turkey lost the war and her European territories except ............
- Bulgaria then attacked ............ Greece, Romania and Turkey sided with ........... in the Second Balkan War agst Bulgaria, who lost her territories obtained in the ............ .

Results of Balkan Wars. p. 280
1. Turkey had lost the majority of her ........... territories.
2. Sought for protector = ........... .
3. Bulgaria weak
4. Austria-Hungary wanted to create an independent Albania to stop Serbia having outlet on Adriatic sea. Austria- Hungary threatened war and Albania became an independent state.
5. Serbia had doubled her population - seemed to obtain her ambition: creating a Greater Serbia.
6. ...........leaders wanted to defeat ........... in order to maintain the ............

The Balkans before the Balkan war 1912
The Balkans after 1912 and the defeat Turkey

THE JULY CRISIS (1914
) p. 281

THE JULY CRISIS (1914)
a) The Sarajevo assassination p.281
Why did Francis Ferdinand’s assassination lead to war?
-28th June ........... Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the ...........Empire, visited ........... in ............
- Knowing of the visit in advance, ...........had time to plan ...........
- ...........were also in Sarajevo, looking for an opportunity ............
- First terrorist attack on Francis Ferdinand’s car ............
- Due to a wrong turning of the car, Gavrilo Princ̆ip by chance had opportunity to shoot at ...........
- Princ̆ip was Bosnian, .’. an ...........subject, but it was suspected that ...........had encouraged and armed the terrorists.
- The assassination = the reason for ...........to attack ...........

b)
The blank cheque
p.281

5-6 July, ........... gave full support to ...........agst ...........; support known as the ............
- However, Germany (as well as the rest of Europe) did not expect ............

Why did Austria-Hungary take so much time to act?
p. 282
-Austria-Hungary could not prove that ...........was involved in the assassination.
- Austrians could not persuade ...........to approve a military action until ............
-Between 20-23 July = a state visit by ...........to Russia. Austria-Hungary did not want the ...........to plan together . ........... waited for the end of the visit to act.

c) The Ultimatum p. 282
-23 July, ........... presents ultimatum to ........... = 10 demands to be accepted within ............
- Serbia’s conciliatory reply, however refused the main demand, i.e. to let ...........into Serbia to take part in the ........... for Francis Ferdinand’s assassination.
- Russia, to maintain her position in the Balkans, decided to back ........... with the excuse that a fellow Slav State was under attack.
-Since ........... had not unconditionally accepted the ultimatum,Austria mobilised ............


d) The worsening of the crisis p.282
- ........... began mobilising her army to support ...........
- ........... proposed an international conference to resolve the crisis, ...........and ...........refrused
the appeals
- 28th July ...........declared war on ...........
- 28th July ........... partial mobilisation of her army was to serve as a deterrant for ...........
- The Tsar, ..........., sent telegram to the Kaiser, ........... appealing for his help to stop the war.
- ........... made it clear that even partial mobilisation of the ........... army wld provoke ...........
mobilisation.
- ........... @ this point cld only mobilse cher army ompletely, ........... supported ............ ........... and ...........still hoped for peace negotiations.


-...........demanded that ........... cease military actions agst ........... and ...........within ...........hrs.
-In absence of a reply ........... declared war on ........... on ...........
- ........... asked ........... to be neutral. Not receiving this promise, ........... declared war on France on ............ 1914

e)
War
p. 284

-von Schlieffen, chief of ........... Staff, faced a two front war (west against ........... . East against ...........).
- planned a massive attack agst France, counting on Russia’s slowness to move her troops westward.
- Once ........... had been defeated, ........... troops cld be transferred to the Eastern front.
- The ........... assumed that ........... wld attack on the frontier betwn ........... and ............
- Instead, ...........planned to go into ........... and attack ...........from the undefended ...........border
- The ........... army was to march into Northern ...........and encircle ...........
- Then ...........army wld attack ...........army from the rear.

The Schlieffen Plan
p. 283
Declaring War! p. 284
-........... refused to let ........... troops pass through ..........., so ........... occupied ............
- The ........... government agreed that ........... shld fight ........... to defend ............
- ........... demanded the withdrawl of ...........troops from ............ The ultimatum was disregarded so
........... declared war on ........... on ............
-6th August ...........declared war on ..........., 12th August ...........and ........... declared war on ............
- ........... afraid of the ........... fleet, found excuses not to honour the ...........commitments.

1) Germany p. 284
a)aggressive ........... aligned ..........., ..........., ........... agst ...........
b) the “...........” to Austria-Hungary meant that ........... was prepared to risk war. (p. 286)
c) in 1914 ...........felt encircled while ........... was getting stronger
d) ........... rejected ...........’s proposal for a conference of powers in 1914 to prevent war
e) With the ........... plan and Belgium’s invasion, ........... provoked ........... into war.

2) Austria
a) ........... government exaggerated ...........threat, ........... were only 1/10 of ........... population
b) A rapid strike agst ........... might hv averted war
c) ...........was the first power to resort to force by attacking ...........

3) Russia
a) Did not restrain.........../ ...........nationalism
b) ...........’s promise to support ...........made ........... reject ...........ultimatum


Which country was most to blame for the war?
IT SEEMS UNLIKELY THAT ANY COUNTRY PLANNED OR WANTED A GENERAL WAR. ALL CLAIMED THEY WERE FIGHTING A WAR OF SELF-DEFENSE. ALL GOT IT WRONG. HAD EUROPEAN LEADERS REALISED THE HORRORS THAT LAID AHEAD, THEY SURELY WOULD NOT HAVE ACTED AS THEY DID IN 1914.
Full transcript