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Commas, dashes, and ellipses
Transcript of Commas, dashes, and ellipses
to separate a series
after introduction phrases
to separate adjectives
to set off appositives
used to set off quotations, dates, and titles
used to set off addresses
to separate independent and dependent clauses before the conjunction (word or words that join together more words or word groups)
used after yes, no, oh, and well when they begin a sentence
used to set off the name of the person you are directly speaking to
used for parenthetical express
used in the greeting and closing of letters Commas Ellipses Separating Series Commas are used in a series when there are more than 2 items.
Ex.: Michelle went to the store to buy milk, butter, and eggs. Separating Series Correct the following sentence. On Saturday, Jonathan went to Wal-Mart American Eagle and Hollister. Introduction Phrases Commas are used after introductory phrases. Introductory phrases start with adverbs like after, although, as, because, before, if, since, though, until, when, etc.
Ex.: If they want to win, athletes must exercise every day. Introduction Phrases Correct the following sentences. Because he kept barking insistently we threw the ball for Smokey.
Before the game we went out to eat. Separating Adjectives Used to separate 2 or more adjectives when the word "and" can be used between them. Ex.: The hot, crackling, smoky fire roared through the beautiful, old forests of Yosemite. Separating Adjectives Correct the following sentences. The dirty oily engines were broken.
The powerful big red fire truck raced down the busy crowded highway. Setting Off Appositives Commas are used to set off appositives (noun or noun-phrase that renames another noun in the same sentence)
Ex.: Jill, Stan's mother, made a birthday cake. Setting Off Appositives Correct the following sentences. Mexico City the biggest city in the world has many interesting archaeological sites.
The altitude of Lhasa the capital of Tibet is over 12,000 feet Setting Off Quotations, Dates, and Titles If the quote comes before the person who spoke and tells something, place a comma after the quote, before the closing quotation mark.
If the quote comes after the person who spoke and tells something, place the comma after the person who spoke, before the opening quotation mark.
Ex.: Don't forget to visit me in London," Martha said. Sam asked, "What do you mean?" Setting Off Quotations, Dates, and Titles Commas are used in dates to separate the day from the year.
Ex.: July 4, 1776 Setting Off Quotations, Dates, and Titles Use commas to set off professional titles such as M.D., Ph.D., and so on, from the name preceding it and from the rest of the sentence.
Ex.: Henry Smith, M.D., diagnosed Kara with influenza. Setting Off Quotations, Dates, and Titles Correct the following sentences. "Today we are going to study about the water cycle" the teacher told the class.
Martha asked "What are we going to do before?"
On April 14 1912 the Titanic sank.
Kenneth Griffey Jr. could have broken Maris' record. Addresses A comma is needed between the name of a city or town and the name of a state, district, or country. Use a comma after each part of the address when it is used in a sentence. Remember, there is never a comma between the name of a state and a ZIP code.
Ex.: P. Sherman, 42 Wallaby Way, Sydney, Australia Addresses Correct the following sentences. Send your contest entry form to Prize Bonanza 219 Main Street Milwaukee Wisconsin 12345.
My new address will be 47 North Street Adams New York 54321. Independent & Dependent Clauses Commas are used to separate independent clauses before conjunctions. Dependent clauses do NOT express a complete thought; it's a fragment. Independent clauses express complete thoughts, and they can stand alone as a sentence. A conjunction is a word that connects two parts of a sentence that have equal value. (so, but, for, or, nor, and yet.)
Ex.: He went to the Bahamas, but she went to Mexico. Independent & Dependent Clauses Correct the following sentences. John Adams came in second in the election so he became the first vice president.
George Washington was the first president but he never lived in the White House. Yes, No, Oh, Well Commas are used after yes, no, oh, and well when they begin a sentence. Yes, No, Oh, Well Correct the following sentences. Yes I will be there at 7.
Well what do we do now? Direct Address Commas are used to set off the name of the person you are speaking to directly.
Ex.: Dakota, hand me that bottle of water. Direct Address Correct the following sentences. Will you help me Martha?
We've got to hurry Bob or we'll be late. Parenthetical Express Commas are used to set off words or phrases not necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
Ex.: Accident injuries, for example, can be very fatal. Parenthetical Express Correct the following sentences. Motorcycles however need to be driven with care.
A motorcycle of course must be constantly alert. Letters Commas are used after the beginning and closing of a friendly letter.
Ex.: Dear Geoffrey,
Sincerely, Letters Correct the following. Dear Amanda
Yours truly Dashes Dashes are used to separate. Dashes are used to set of parenthetical elements, when you want to emphasize, and when they are lengthy or abrupt.
Ex.: I wish you would—oh, never mind.
You are the friend—the only friend—who offered to help me. Dashes Correct the following sentences. Please call my agent Jessica Cohen about hiring me.
I need three items at the store dog food, vegetarian chili, and cheddar cheese. Ellipses are used to show an omission from a sentence or other construction of one or more words and to show hesitation in speech.
Ex.: The ceremony honored twelve brilliant athletes … visiting the U.S.
Harry said,"I'm not sure..." Ellipses Insert ellipses as needed. "I'm wondering" Xavier said, bemused.
"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth a new nation, conceived in liberty"