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Transcript of Network Society
Agrarian society, industrial society and network society
Castells and Marx
Why not information or knowledge society?
1. new technological paradigm
2. the limits of industrial mode of production in capital accumulation led to political crisis: transformation of post-war capitalist state (Keynesian economics) - labour stability and consumer society - as well as Soviet statism
4. 60s and 70s social movement - cultural code of networks
Background of network society
1975 - data computerized
1977 - company wide computer network for ordering from suppliers.
1979 - first computer center as terminal for the network.
1981 - first buying office in Hong Kong
1983 - bar codes for scanning POS data.
1987 - make use of the largest private satellite communication system in the United States to link all operating units of company and headquarters.
Late 80-early 90s - launch "buy American campaign" to save local manufacturer, but more than 40% of the goods was imported from Asia.
1989 - Plan to enter China disrupted by the Tiananmen incident
1991- Set up Pacific Resources Export Limited (PREL) to "buy" for Wal-mart;
1992 - Deng Xiaoping visited Shenzhen and introduced a set of policy to attract foreign investment (such as tax exemption). Taiwan manufacturers relocated to Pearl Delta. Wal-Mart deploys the retail link system to strengthen supplier partnerships. The system provides vendors information on sale trends and inventory levels. "Buy American campaign" ends.
1995 - retail businesses entered China, partnership with Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation (SITI). The state council approved the joint venture of Wal-Mart and SITI.
1996 - retail link and EDI (electronic data interchange) available via the Internet.
2002 - direct import rather than going through the PREL. Work with factories directly. Brand products vendors force to abandon factories in the U.S and work with Chinese factories.
2003 - the joint venture is renamed as Walmart Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation. Wal-mart hold 65% while SITI hold 35%. SITI formed another company to take care of land/rental arrangement for store.
2004 - imports more than 18 billion goods purchased in China which equals 10% of all U.S imports from China.
2005 - deploy radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to track the whereabout of the goods.
2006- starts experimenting with Web 2.0 and social networking tools, applies price-optimization and Business Intelligence retail applications. USD22 billion imports from China, account for 12% of US total import. First Wal-Mart Union appears in China.
2007 - Wal-Mart launches Site to Store service, enabling online customers to pick up merchandise in stores.
2008 - more than 7000 Wal mart in the world, 99 stores in China, 95% product comes from China from more than 20,000 manufacturers, annual Export from China: USD18 billion
2012 - among the 10,000 worldwide stores, more than 370 stores in China
Network society vs Class society
- Technological paradigm and means of production
(informationalism - ICT vs. industrialism - machine)
- Mode of production
informational capitalism vs industrial capitalism / China and Russia statism
- Organization of production (Time and Space)
space of flows and timeless time vs. assembly line and factory; global vs. national
flexible, self program and generic labour (pro fordism) vs. fordism
- Social structure
network (global) structure, no center, nodes vs. hierarchical, vertical
- Power operation
inclusion and exclusion vs. exploitation
value, identity and culture (reprogramming the network goal) vs class struggle
Transnational vs. national