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The Evolution of Writing

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Armon Siadat

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of The Evolution of Writing

Uruk United States of America 3500 BCE Cuneiform Sumerian Nature and Education of cuneiform Sumerian: Nature, education of system Evolved from Meso. pictographs Mesopotamia Receipts of business transactions In the next stage of development, pictographs were drawn into wet clay, and these images replaced the tokens. Scribes no longer drew four sheep pictographs to represent four sheep. Instead, the numeral for four was written beside one sheep pictograph. The Epic of Gilgamesh Egypt 2900 BCE
Hieroglyphics Died in 400 AD Longest lasting written language (3,300 years) Thoth Lascaux, France 15,000 BCE
Cave drawings Fossil evidence of animals featured in paintings Did in fact live during that time period Anatolia (Modern-day Turkey) 6,000 BCE
Proto-Indo-European 449 total languages Widest ranging language (3 billion native speakers) Greece 2,000 BCE
Greek Linear B (Earliest texts) 1200 BCE Mycenaean civilization collapses
Writing disappears from Greece Late 8th century BCE new alphabet Relied more on spoken language started during the Hellenic period called Attic Attic in Athens, Ionic in city states on Aegean Sea
Attic-Ionic Alexander the Great conquests (336 BCE)
Attic-Ionic + ancient language = Hellenistic Kione (common Greek). Alexander made this the official language of Greek commerce and trade
with other countries, eventually official language
of Greece. Lasted from 300 BCE- 300 New Testament Atticism- Attic only form of writing.
Lasted through Byzantine era until defeated by Turks. Mix of Turkish and Attic until Greece won independence in 1830. Language problem today. Phoenicia 1,600 BCE
Phonetic alphabet One of the most widely used forms of writing. Spread by merchants across the Mediterranean world. Aramaic alphabet = modified Phoenician --> Modern Arabic script China 1,200 BCE
Chinese Written on bone fragments.
Characters were carved on the bones in order to frame a question; the bones were then heated over a fire and the resulting cracks were interpreted to determine the answer. Evolved in 1,066. Less angular. Metal. 800 BC
demotic writing Much more like handwriting. Looking at it, you can hardly tell that it had evolved all the way from hieroglyphics 500 BC
Classical Chinese Cloth, Bamboo, Wood India 2600 BCE
Still undeciphered Brahmi and Kharosthi evolved from this mystery language. 400 BCE
Sanskirt 1st real grammar structure in India Italy 200 BCE
Romance Languages Roman Empire conquers Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian. THE EVOLUTION OF WRITING AND LANGUAGE Britain 1000 AD
Old English Germanic invaders.
Diverse dialects. Old Norse/Old High German. 1400
Middle English Resembles modern English.
2 invasions: Scandinavians (8th and 9th centuries) and Normans (11th century) 1066
Modern English Large portion of vocabulary comes straight from Anglo-Norman (Middle English) Standardized in 1755. Dictionary of the English Language. 2012
Txt Lngo
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