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Theories on SLA
Transcript of Theories on SLA
involves accommodation, the learner adjust his internalized system to make it fit to the input. Denativization Brown (1980) Andersen Giles (1982) Accomodation 3 The role of motivation (instrumental or integrative) in language learning Hatch (1978) Discourse 4 Motivation is useless without application of the language The frequency of language use is emphasized Ellis (1981) Monitor Model 5 Acquisition – the language is acquired consciously; meaning is given importance Acquisition Learning Hypothesis 1 Learning – language is learned consciously e.g. schooling Natural Order 2 Same Structure Monitor Hypothesis 3 Monitor - correct errors in language use Input Hypothesis 4 An input can be called as comprehensible if it is within the level of the learner i (current level)+ 1(input) Affective Filter 5 High self-confidence and motivation, and low anxiety result to lower filter and higher probability of language learning and vice versa Aptitude Role of L1 Routines or Patterns Age Individual Differences Communicative competence depends upon how you learn and use the language Variable Competence 6 Conscious (Schooling) Unconscious (exposure) Chomsky Universal Hypothesis Rod Ellis (1984) Languages have their own structure but have similar parts e.g. verbs, subjects, objects States that learners learn the L2 because all languages have their own structures which are similar from each other. 7 Lamendella (1977) Neurofunctional There is a connection between language function and the neural anatomy It doesn’t believe in the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). 8 The left hemisphere of the brain works on language. acculturation as defined by Brown is the process
of becoming adapted to a new culture.
it is seen as an important aspect of SLA
because language is one of the most observable
expressions of culture. SLA is just one aspect of acculturation, and
the degree to which a learner acculturates to the target language group will control the degree
to which he acquires the second language schumann 1978 Andersen is not concerned with the learners internal processing mechanism. to a much greater extend he is concerned with language processes. Social and Psychological Distance
social distance - is the result of the number of factors which affects the learner as a member of social group.
psychological distance - is the result of various affective factors which concern the learner as an individual. Nativization Denativization growth towards
norm. growth independent
of the external norm the acculturation and nativist theories focus on the power mechanism of SLA. they provide explanations of why L2 learners unlike L1 learners often like to achieve a native like competence. accommodation theory derives from the
research of Giles and associates in the
inter group uses of language in multi-
lingual community like Britain. his primary concern is to investigate how
inter group uses of language reflect basic
social and psychological attitudes in inter
for Giles inter group relationships are dynamic and fluctuate in accordance with the shifting views of identity held by each group vis-a-vis the others. upward convergence
occur when the learner
is positively motivated
towards the outgroup
community. downward convergence
occur when the learner
is not positively motivated
towards the outgroup
community. The strength of accommodation theory is that it compasses language acquisition and language use within a single framework. through communicating with other people children accomplish actions in the world and develop the rules of language structure and use. communication is treated as the matrix of linguistic knowledge that language development should be considered in terms of how the learner discovers the meaning potential of language by participating in communication. it is applicable to the process of internalizing new L2 knowledge, to storing this knowledge and also to using it in actual performance. indicates that learners may follow a more or less invariant order in the acquisition of formal grammatical features. over user - seldom use the language. the device used to edit their language performance. under user - who usually usually use the language. optimal user - who appropriately use the language the model is based on 2 distinctions PROCESS PRODUCT the model is based on 2 distinctions product process A continuum of discourse
types range from entirely
unplanned to entirely
planned. its use is to be understood in terms of the distinction between linguistic knowledge and the ability to make use of this knowledge. a neurofunctional perspective on language attempts to characterize the neurolinguistic information proceesing systems responsible for the development and use of language. neurofunctional accounts of SLA have considered the contribution of 2 areas ogf the brain; the right (as opposed to
the left) hemisphere. and the areas of the left
hemisphere (in particular
those known as Wernicke's
and Broca's areas) which clinicaly studies have shown to be closely associated with the comprehension and production of language.