Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Prairies

Minnesota prairies
by

Amber Koehnen

on 14 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Prairies

Prairies By: Amber Koehnen, Brandon Severns, and Annabelle Raske Prairie Description Producer: Big Bluestem Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness: Symbiotic Relationship: Primary Consumer:
Prairie Dogs Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness: Symbiotic Relationship: Secondary Consumer:
Hog-nosed Snake Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness: Symbiotic Relationship: Decomposer:
Mushrooms Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness: Symbiotic Relationship: Climate: Surface Conditions: Food Web: Energy Pyramid: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=prairies&qpvt=prairies&FORM=IGRE#view=detail&id=623A5EE014A88F68D64E7573B38D007928CFA57B&selectedIndex=211 Big bluestem can live in many different types of prairies (Big Bluestem).
For example, they can live in black soil prairies, clay prairies, gravel prairies, along with others(Big Bluestem).
Big bluestem lives in both dry and moist conditions (Big Bluestem). Big bluestem grows in large clumps (Big Bluestem).
It's the most dominant grass in a tall grass prairie and can be found everywhere in a tall grass prairie (Big Bluestem)(Big Bluestem Grass). Big bluestem pollination is by wind (Big Bluestem).
Each spikelet on a big bluestem produces a single grain carried by the wind (Big Bluestem). i. Big bluestem is an autotroph and producer (Hauschild).
ii. There is a fungi called mycorrhizae that helps big bluestem to survive and grow and to help take up nutrients, like water, in the soil. Needs sun and carbon to create photosynthesis (Hauschild). This plant can tolerate occassional wildfires, but cannot tolerate heavy grazing from the animals (Big Bluestem). This plant can be used as a forage crop and it's under development as a biofuel feedstock (Price).
It's often used in prairie restorations (Big Bluestem). Big bluestem has a mutualism symbiotic relationship with fungi (Hauschild).
For example, big bluestem uses the fungi in the soil to regrow while the fungi uses big bluestem as a food source (Hauschild). Minnesota prairies can have up to hot summers and cold winters with a wide range of temperatures (North American Prairies).
Our prairies can have up to an average of 12.6 inches of rain in shortgrass prairies and up to an average of 21.7 inches of rain in tallgrass prairies (North American Prairies).
There is low winter precipitation and a short duration of snow cover (Prairie Parkland Province).
Minnesota prairies have strong winds that blow across the plains in both the summer and winter months (North American Prairie). The soils for Minnesota prairies can range from clays to sandy/gravelly beach ridges (Johnson).
The water is deep in the soil so the plants use their long roots to extract the water and get the nutrients (North American Prairie).
There is fungi in the ground helping the plants grow (Hauschild).
Prairie soil is a dense mat of bulbs, rootstock, tangled roots, and rhizomes (North American Prairie). Prairies can be defined as extensive flat or rolling grasslands. Minnesota grasslands can range from sand dunes to vast fields of big bluestem that can grow up to 8 feet tall. Also Minnesota grasslands can range from wet meadows to shortgrass prairies that are on the high bluffs of the Minnesota River (Prairie Grassland Biome). This snake likes to live on dry prairies or oak savannas (Western Hognose Snake).
The hog-nosed snake uses self-dug burrows or gopher burrows to live in (Plains Hog-nosed Snake). There are threats to the hog-nosed snake population (Western Hog-nosed Snake).
The hog-nosed snake has now been classified as a species of special concern (Western Hognose Snake).
They are a very secretive species and are hard to sight and locate which makes it more difficult to get the population (Plains Hog-nosed Snake). The breeding season for this snake usually takes place in mid-April through May (Western Hognose Snake).
The females can lay anywhere from two to twenty-four eggs in late May to early July and then the young can emerge from 50 to 65 days (Western Hognose Snake). i. This snake is a heterotroph and a secondary consumer (Plains Hog-nosed Snake
ii. The hog-nosed snake can eat anything from toads and frogs to lizards, small snakes, and small rodents (Plains Hog-nosed Snake).
This snake also eats the eggs of lizards, snakes, and ground nesting birds (Plains Hog-nosed Snake). The hog-nosed snake's habitat is getting smaller and smaller (Western Hognose Snake).
The cause to this loss of habitat is due to agriculture, urban development, and roads (Western Hognose Snake).
Sometimes when people encounter one of these snakes, they are often frightened by them and kill them, making the population of these snakes smaller (Western Hognose Snake). The hog-nosed snake can be used as a pet (Plains Hog-nosed Snake).
Many of these snakes are captive bred which makes them harder to find in the wild and therefore a less threat to humans (Plains Hog-nosed Snake). The hog-nosed snake has a parisitism symbiotic relationship with small rodents (Plains Hog-nosed Snake).
For example, the snake kills the mouse and benefits from the mouse (Plains Hog-nosed Snake). http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=hog-nosed+snake&qs=n&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=C9F74731DCEEFB3C4E98C557C0D582BD2664005F&selectedIndex=0 http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=big+bluestem&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=big+bluestem&sc=8-12&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=0C2712020A722E496B67533B0C267DAEB1FBF914&selectedIndex=23 100% 10% 1% 0.1% Heat Heat Heat Heat http://www.etap.org/demo/biology_files/lesson6/kep26.jpg Sun energy http://noabeachwear.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/sun.jpg Prairie dogs like to live in underground burrows. These burrows are connected by tunnels and chambers(Prairie Dog).
In their burrows, they have nurseries, sleeping quarters, and even toilets (Prairie Dog).
To not get eaten by predators, prairie dogs have listening posts near the exits of their burrows (Prairie Dog). http://hedweb.com/animimag/prairie-dogs.jpg Prairie dogs have often been killed as pests (Prairie Dog).
About 98% of prairie dogs have been killed in the 20th century (Prairie Dog).
Prairie dog range has shrunk to about five percent of its original historic range (Prairie Dog). Prairie dog's mating season is in March (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog).
It takes around 33-38 days for the babies to be born (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog).
The prairie dog pups are born in April or May (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog).
The litter size can range from 1 to 8 pups but, the average is 3 to 4 pups (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog). i. Prairie dogs are heterotrophs and a primary consumer (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog).
ii. Prairie dogs eat mainly grasses, sedges, flowering plants, roots and seeds (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog).
These animals have also been known to eat insects (Black-Tailed Prairie Dog). Prairie dogs have a commensalism symbiotic relationship with black-footed ferrets (Prairie Dog).
An example is when a prairie dog doesn't live in the same burrow anymore, the black-footed ferret takes the burrow and benefits from the prairie dog's burrow without harming the prairie dog (Prairie Dog). Some environmental insults are predation, climate changes, and availability in edible plants (Prairie Dogs).
Another insult is outbreaks of disease (Prairie Dogs).
Ranchers were convinced that prairie dogs were destroying rangelands and competing with cattle for food, so they had poisoning programs to eliminate prairie dogs (Prairie Dogs). Scientists concluded that prairie dogs draw out moisture from the ground because of their burrows (Harsh).
Prairie dogs very rarely transmit the plague to humans (Harsh).
The prairie dogs and cattle have a mutually beneficial relationship in where prairie dogs improve the forage for cattle, which is good for the farmers (Harsh). http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoV4ScfNQL30AiUKJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3F_adv_prop%3Dimage%26va%3Dbig%2Bbluestem%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D3&w=1219&h=2304&imgurl=www.jeinc.com%2FWebsites%2Fjeinc%2FImages%2Fistockbigbluestemweb.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jeinc.com%2Fbig-bluestem&size=900.9+KB&name=%3Cb%3EBig+Bluestem+%3C%2Fb%3E%7C+Johnston+Enterprises%2C+Inc.&p=big+bluestem&oid=1554c35d152add192b42a5718623964f&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=%253Cb%253EBig%2BBluestem%2B%253C%252Fb%253E%257C%2BJohnston%2BEnterprises%252C%2BInc.&b=0&ni=72&no=3&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=111ngoigr&sigb=13a8ai24k&sigi=11s5otpdi&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKuhcfNQgTcAo0KJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dimages%2Bprairie%2Bcornflower%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D2&w=800&h=800&imgurl=i1.treknature.com%2Fphotos%2F17351%2Fprairie_coneflower_tn.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.treknature.com%2Fgallery%2Fphoto230017.htm&size=229.7+KB&name=previous+next+%3Cb%3Eprairie+%3C%2Fb%3Econeflower&p=images+prairie+cornflower&oid=19f02c6323e9b6f784ecca9b7c184188&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&rw=images+prairie+coneflower&tt=previous%2Bnext%2B%253Cb%253Eprairie%2B%253C%252Fb%253Econeflower&b=0&ni=66&no=2&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11h5kcgme&sigb=13kjscbm0&sigi=11o3245pp&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoX8KcvNQkVoAmCmJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dprairie%2Bdogs%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D12&w=669&h=920&imgurl=images.northrup.org%2Fpicture%2Fxl%2Fprairie-dogs%2Fprairie-dog-on-watch.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.northrup.org%2Fphotos%2Fprairie-dogs%2F&size=49.3+KB&name=%3Cb%3Eprairie%3C%2Fb%3E-dog-on-watch.jpg&p=prairie+dogs&oid=8c567a2169e628fb05964a38db3aaf1d&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=%253Cb%253Eprairie%253C%252Fb%253E-dog-on-watch.jpg&b=0&ni=90&no=12&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11cm443kg&sigb=1383a358v&sigi=124ic474l&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKlocvNQ1XgA2EuJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dgrasshoppers%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D2&w=615&h=480&imgurl=www.grasshoppercontrol.com%2Ftwo-striped%2520grasshopper.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.grasshoppercontrol.com%2F&size=89.8+KB&name=two-striped%2520grasshopper.jpg&p=grasshoppers&oid=9d71c323d347e4a45b6d1e6c9916d699&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=two-striped%252520grasshopper.jpg&b=0&ni=66&no=2&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=1123vjfu6&sigb=137fcmhv6&sigi=11otfu09k&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoV4Pc_NQ2TsAmbGJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dowls%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D50&w=345&h=375&imgurl=www.massaudubon.org%2FImages%2Fowls%2FShort-eared_Owl.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.massaudubon.org%2FNature_Connection%2Fwildlife%2Findex.php%3Fsubject%3DBirds%3A%2520Species%26amp%3Bid%3D54&size=20.4+KB&name=short+eared+owl+photo+by+joe+vincent+although+%3Cb%3Eowls+%3C%2Fb%3Eare+among&p=owls&oid=a3bfbdc958b572a3aa41e50634e40e8b&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=short%2Beared%2Bowl%2Bphoto%2Bby%2Bjoe%2Bvincent%2Balthough%2B%253Cb%253Eowls%2B%253C%252Fb%253Eare%2Bamong&b=31&ni=66&no=50&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=132fg6sn5&sigb=130n3n450&sigi=11jmbh4mf&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKnDc_NQlTMAirOJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dhog-nosed%2Bsnake%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D27&w=1200&h=762&imgurl=us.123rf.com%2F400wm%2F400%2F400%2Fdesignpics%2Fdesignpics1006%2Fdesignpics100606380%2F7201174-an-eastern-hognose-snake.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.123rf.com%2Fphoto_7201174_an-eastern-hognose-snake.html&size=219.2+KB&name=An+Eastern+Hognose+%3Cb%3ESnake+%3C%2Fb%3ERoyalty+Free+Stock+Photo%2C+Pictures%2C+Images+...&p=hog-nosed+snake&oid=809b54ac8b592341cd1ca3bfda1da681&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=An%2BEastern%2BHognose%2B%253Cb%253ESnake%2B%253C%252Fb%253ERoyalty%2BFree%2BStock%2BPhoto%252C%2BPictures%252C%2BImages%2B...&b=0&ni=66&no=27&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=1201rh429&sigb=13bahadqp&sigi=13dsa81j7&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoX0RdPNQBl8A.emJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dsparrow%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D12&w=759&h=566&imgurl=www.foxy-shop.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F02%2Fhouse_sparrow%2Bpardal1.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foxy-shop.com%2Fproducts%2Fsparrow%2F&size=61.5+KB&name=house_sparrow%2Bpardal1.jpg&p=sparrow&oid=ac8fafba62a613034b152c3bd978b4cd&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=house_sparrow%252Bpardal1.jpg&b=0&ni=66&no=12&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11ak3e4m2&sigb=13363gall&sigi=126ino7bj&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoTE7dPNQWBMA3Y6JzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dcoyotes%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D11&w=1124&h=774&imgurl=1.bp.blogspot.com%2F-84voIl-a9bk%2FTV-Qh695QJI%2FAAAAAAAAA2Y%2FblQpI5ga3H8%2Fs1600%2Fcoyote11.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Ftrue-wildlife.blogspot.com%2F2011%2F02%2Fcoyote.html&size=582.6+KB&name=true+wild+life+coyote+%3Cb%3Ecoyotes+%3C%2Fb%3Eprairie+wolf+are+native+to+north+and+...&p=coyotes&oid=bb0cda9f4efb622ab83d4002f46ec013&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=true%2Bwild%2Blife%2Bcoyote%2B%253Cb%253Ecoyotes%2B%253C%252Fb%253Eprairie%2Bwolf%2Bare%2Bnative%2Bto%2Bnorth%2Band%2B...&b=0&ni=66&no=11&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11lp83qcf&sigb=1338n72uf&sigi=12ld9sddj&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoKmbdPNQMzwAZ4eJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dpronghorn%2Bantelope%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-525%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=1600&h=1200&imgurl=animalscamp.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F12%2FPronghorn-Antelope-2.jpeg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fanimalscamp.com%2Fpronghorn-antelope%2F&size=304.6+KB&name=%3Cb%3EPronghorn+Antelope+%3C%2Fb%3E%7C+%3Cb%3EPronghorn+Antelope+%3C%2Fb%3EFacts+%7C+%3Cb%3EPronghorn+Antelope+%3C%2Fb%3E...&p=pronghorn+antelope&oid=5bd1f212a0b35b994d954f1ce945f3ce&fr2=&fr=yfp-t-525&tt=%253Cb%253EPronghorn%2BAntelope%2B%253C%252Fb%253E%257C%2B%253Cb%253EPronghorn%2BAntelope%2B%253C%252Fb%253EFacts%2B%257C%2B%253Cb%253EPronghorn%2BAntelope%2B%253C%252Fb%253E...&b=0&ni=66&no=1&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11aok6ch2&sigb=13drfc071&sigi=124oo691b&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk i. Mushrooms are heterotrophs and decomposers (Waste Not).
ii. Mushrooms need nitrogen to get the proteins they need for growth (Waste Not). They also need oxygen to grow (Waste Not). Mushrooms decompose leaves, plant materials, and organic matter (Waste Not). Since mushrooms decompose, they take out the nitrogen in organic matter which helps plants grow (Waste Not).
Humans need these plants for food, oxygen, and vegetation (Waste Not). Mushrooms have a mutualism symbiotic relationship with the plants (Waste Not).
For example, the mushrooms break down the dead matter from the plants and the plants continue to grow since the mushrooms take out the nitrogen (Waste Not). Since humans produce so much organic waste, the mushrooms and other decomposers can't keep up and break down everything (Waste Not).
If temperature becomes too low or too high, then this fungi cannot grow and the rate of decompostion becomes slower (Waste Not). Mushrooms tend to live better in the moist prairies (Waste Not).
In order for the mushrooms to decompose faster, they need a temperature that's not too hot and not too cold (Waste Not).
They live and thrive on the dead matter in a prairie (Waste Not). Mushrooms can be found in the prairie yearly (Mushroom Facts).
There some 38,000 varieties of mushrooms that can be found (Mushroom Facts).
They can be found anywhere in a prairie (Waste Not). Mushrooms have two methods of reproduction, asexual and sexual (Coila).
Instead of producing eggs and sperm, they produce spores (Coila).
Mushrooms can clone themselves through asexual reproduction (Coila).
Mushrooms shoot their spores out and they get carried by the wind to try and find a compatible partner and produce a full genetic code with two nuclei (Coila). http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0PDoS2dhfNQ_CIAf0OJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dprairie%2Bmushrooms%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D4&w=600&h=400&imgurl=www.prairieremnants.com%2Fimages%2Ffungi%2Fsulfur2.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.prairieremnants.com%2Fbook.asp%3Fbook%3D29%26amp%3Bpage%3D142&size=49+KB&name=purchase+this+photo+september+2004+these+are+hard+to+miss&p=prairie+mushrooms&oid=4ddca8b9d10b505628c0087645405103&fr2=piv-web&fr=&tt=purchase%2Bthis%2Bphoto%2Bseptember%2B2004%2Bthese%2Bare%2Bhard%2Bto%2Bmiss&b=0&ni=72&no=4&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11sjh1kba&sigb=12tqh5rqh&sigi=11gf2niov&.crumb=8ZSU1UF7xnk Invasive Species: Wild Parsnip and Queen Ann's Lace Wild parsnip and Queen Ann's lace can invade a whole prairie (Wild Parsnip) (And Today).
They both can cause irritation to the skin (Wild Parsnip) (And Today).
They both impact the prairie in that if they take over the prairies grasslands, they can cause the food source of primary consumers to be lost, affecting the whole biome (Wild Parsnip) (And Today). Owl Hog-nosed Snake Coyote Grasshopper Sparrow Big Bluestem Prairie Coneflower Prairie Dog Pronghorn Antelope
Full transcript