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Diversity Leadership Book Prezi

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Jean Lau Chin

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Transcript of Diversity Leadership Book Prezi

Chapter 10: Developing a Paradigm for Diversity Leadership
Chapter 9: Applications-
Training Culturally Competent Organizations
Going Beyond:
Challenging today's Leader Prototype
What does the 21st Century Leader look like?
Transformational Leadership Style
Women and Collaboration
Team Leadership
Servant Leadership
Daoist Leadership
Nurturing Diverse Leaders
Culturally Competent Leadership
Diverse Leadership
Confucian Leadership
Top Down Leadership
Male Dominant Leadership
Distance Leadership
China's Iron Lady: former Vice Premier WuYi
U.S. President Barack Obama
Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel
Judge Sonia Sotomayor
Men and Women Leaders
Jean Lau Chin, EdD, ABPP
Adelphi University
Chin, J. L. & Trimble, J. (2014). Diversity and Leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage

Email: CEOServices@yahoo.com
Website: ceoservices.wix.com/ceoservices

Chin, J. L. & Desormeaux, L. (2014). Diversity Leadership Training Video
Notable Quote: On 21st century leadership
Vignette on “How to Become a Great Leader”
Changing Population Demographics: Multicultural Perspectives
Changing Demographics and Ethnic Distributions
The Challenge of Understanding and Defining Identity
Underrepresentation of Diverse Leaders
Omission of Diversity in the Leadership Literature
Changing Contexts: From an Industrial to Global Perspective
Why does it matter?
Redefining Leadership: Global and Diverse
Discussion Questions: Context and Change—From whence we came to where we are headed
Chapter 1: Leadership for the 21st Century
Chapter 3: Paradigms for Diversity Leadership

Vignette: Images of Leaders: Have times changed?
New Paradigms of Leadership: DLMOX
Diversity Leadership Paradigms
Cultural Values
Multidimensional and Complex
Social Justice Orientation
Intersecting Ethical Principles and Diverse Leadership
Grounded Research theory – Emic approaches
Cultural Measurement Equivalence

Chapter 3: Paradigms for Diversity Leadership

Expanding Current Theories to Include Diversity
Egalitarianism vs. Hierarchical Orientations
Work-family Interface
Interpersonal Relationships vs. Task Orientations
Cooperation vs. Competition
Power to Empowerment
Discussion Questions: Reframing Leadership Theories—Research to evolve new paradigms
Incorporating Non-Western Perspectives in Leadership
Relationships: Quanxi and Ren-Qing in Leadership
Performance-Maintenance Theory
Hierarchy: Benevolent Paternalism
Prophetic-Caliphal Leadership
Implicit Leadership Theories: Cross-cultural perspectives
Contrasting Western vs. Eastern World Views
Collectivism vs. Individualism
Humanistic-Altruistic Orientation
Conflict Management and Negotiation across Cultures
Vignette: On Microaggression and Privilege
Culture and Ethnicity in Leadership
Cultural Values and Beliefs
Cultural Variation: Implicit Leadership Theories
Cross-Cultural vs. Diverse
Diversity and Leadership Principles
Cultural Competence and Sensitivity
Diversity and Cross-cultural
Dominant-Minority Relations
Privilege and Marginal Statuses
Power and Empowerment
Ethnocentric Bias in Current Theories of Leadership

Chapter 2: Diversity and Leadership
Leadership Qualities and Social Categorization
Leadership as an Outcome of Social Categorization Process
Content of Leadership Categories
Social Power and Leadership Power
Status Characteristics and Emergence of Leadership
Double standards: Influence of social categories on expectations of leaders
Procedural Fairness
Influence and Individual-centric vs. Collective-centric Identity
Changing Images of Leaders
Image Management
Status and Legitimacy
Challenges and Dilemmas
Discussion Questions: Developing Self-Awareness—From leadership traits to identity
Vignette: Passing for White
Shift from Leader Traits to Leader Identity
Self: Who Leaders Are
Independent vs. Interdependent Self Construal
Racial and Ethnic Identity
Gender Identity
Other Dimensions of Diversity
Multiple and Intersecting Identities
Aversive Racism
Social Identities and Leadership
Leader Prototypes: Based on narrow gender and racial stereotypes
LMX Leadership Theories Favor Dominant In-Groups
Leadership Identity and Social Power
Salience of Social Identities among Leaders
Cognitive Flexibility

Chapter 4: Leader Identity
Ethical Leadership
Virtuous Leadership
Failure of Leadership
Fairness: Procedurally Fair
Humane Leadership
Confucian Leadership
Benevolent Paternalism
Authentic Leadership
Authenticity and Bicultural Leaders
Feminist Leadership
Global and Multiethnic Focus
Authenticity and Chinese Leadership
Leadership Styles of Traditional Native American Indians
Challenges and Dilemmas
Leading Change
Value Judgments
Discussion Questions: Multidimensional Leadership Styles amidst Diverse and Global Context
Invisible Leadership—“Pushing from Behind”
Value Dimensions in Leadership Styles
Are Differences in Leadership Style Related to Gender, Race or Ethnicity?
Task vs. Relationship Leadership Styles
Transformational Leadership Style
Transformational vs. Transactional
Cultural Variation
Collaborative Leadership Style
Women and Collaboration
Team Leadership
Servant Leadership
Chapter 5: Leadership Style
Organizational Composition
Dominant vs. Minority Social Identity Status of the Leader
Mainstream vs. Minority Group Status of the Organization
Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Composition of the Organization
Challenges of Intersection
Diverse Leader-Member Exchange Organizational Paradigm
Mapping Organizational Contexts
Measuring Organizational Culture: Tools vs. Instinct
Performance Appraisals
Organizational Diversity Leadership Skill Sets
Organizational Fit
Adapt or Conform
Intercultural Competence
Discussion Questions: Promoting Organizational Change—Building Organizational Cultures
Notable Quotes: On self-disclosure
Vignette on Gender: Masculinized Contexts—“It is what it is!”
Organizational Culture
Organizational Culture: Academic Health Center
Changing Organizational Culture toward Becoming Diverse
Multinational Organizational Cultures
Power Distribution
Organizational Culture across Industries
Health Care Sector
Corporate Sector
Higher Education Sector
Community Non-profit Sector
Government/Military Sector
Global/Multinational Organizations
Organizational Structure
Inclusive Workplace Model
In-Group vs. Out-Groups
Intergroup Leadership
Chapter 6: Organizational Contexts
Intersections of Race, Ethnicity and Gender in Masculinized Contexts
Role Constraints
Double Binds
Biased Performance Appraisals
Public Policy
Community Benefits
Chinese Exclusion Acts
Golden Dilemmas: Ordinary people can become great diversity leaders
Dilemmas—Social zeitgeist and global contexts
Notable Quote: On culture and expressing affect—“It’s a different experience”
Vignette on Social Responsibility
Hong Kong vs. China: A case example
Global Contexts: Cultural Orientation Value Dimensions
Power: Competition and Cooperation
Collectivism and Individualism
Egalitarianism: Masculinity-Femininity
Humane and Social Responsibility
Diverse Contexts: Influence of Lived Experiences
Social Zeitgeist
In-Groups vs. Out-Groups
Biculturalism: Acculturation and Immigration
Masculinized Contexts

Chapter 7: Societal Contexts of Leadership
Targeted Training Models
Leadership Institute for Women in Psychology (LIWP)
CNPAAEMI Leadership Development Institute: Training racial and ethnic minority leaders
LEAP: Training Asian American leaders
Multicultural and Global Leader Dilemmas
Self-Awareness: Identity
Image Management
Problem Solving and Managing Conflict
Work Culture
Team Building: Leading global teams
Discussion Questions: Applications to training diverse leaders and practicing DLMOX leadership
Notable Quotes on Minority Leadership
Vignette on Cultural Competence Awareness Training
Purpose of Diversity Leadership Training
Training for Culturally Competent Leaders: ASK Model
Developing Culturally Fluent Leaders: Training Applications
Training Diverse Leaders
Leader Awareness: Self-assessment
Leader Skills: Developing cultural fluency
Leader Knowledge: Dimensions of cultural difference
Chapter 8: Applications—
Training Culturally Competent and Diverse Leaders
Training for Culturally Competent Organizations: SWOT analysis
Managing Diversity as Organizational Change
The Three Cs of Managing Diversity:
Evaluation of Outcomes
Measuring Organizational Cultural Competence
Cultural Imperative Measure of Cultural Competence
The Cultural Imperative Tool in Action
Multiple Perspectives in Examining Departmental Cultural Competence
Patient Centered Care
Cultural Fluency of Organizations

DLMOX Paradigm: Crosscutting themes
Leader Identity
Leadership Style Dimensions
Lived Experiences
New paradigms
Discussion Questions: Future Directions—Evolving a DLMOX paradigm

Global Leadership
Feminist Leadership
Ethical Leadership
Servant Leadership
Work Family Balance
Chapter 5 Leadership Style
Diversity and Leadership
21st Century Leadership
Changing the Prototype: Evolving and Emergent
Culturally Diverse Leadership Prototypes
Redefining Leadership: Difference and context
Shared Lived Experiences
Importance of Social Identities to Leadership
Leadership Styles
Maintaining Authenticity and Integrity
Self-protection and Safety
Mentoring and Building Pipelines
Paradigm for Diversity Leadership
Collaborative Leadership Style
We will have Diverse Leaders
China's Iron Lady
Leaders in non-typical roles
All dimensions of diversity
Cultural Competence
Building Bridges
Why does it matter?
DLMOX Paradigm
Growing diversity in our communities and in the world
Inter-group conflict remains pervasive leading to war, racism, violence
Inhumanity to Humanity
Omitted and distorted in our research, training, practice and policy (e.g., blame the victim)

Why does it Matter?

Decisions and policy which exclude individuals and groups as “unfit” for leadership because their styles differ from the norm
Omitted as search for universals continue;
Etic approach
DSM continued to designate homosexuality as a disorder
Defining ideal clients because they fit “our mode”
No pipeline for diverse leaders
No emphasis on leader responsibility for change, inclusion, and equity

How does it Matter?

21st century: this colonial mentality has been challenged as third world countries demand their liberation and as productivity in underdeveloped countries far outpaces that of advanced Western nations. Multinational corporations are the new “conquerors” as they gain strongholds throughout the world in the global market.
21st Century Leadership
Ethical based (Enron)
Value based (social justice)
Collaborative (team, participatory)
Women in workforce
Technology lead to reduced need for strength in labor force
Transformational (change, vision)
Diverse (inclusive, difference)
Currently, our models of leadership derived from traditional paradigms have little to say about equity, social justice, or diversity; they do not strive toward inclusiveness or the removal of barriers.
The study of cultural values (Hofstede, 2001) and worldviews (Sowell, 1994; Sue, 1978), which identifies differences between cultures and groups, can provide insight into the challenges leaders face in these new and changing contexts. Schein (2004) argued that culture and leadership are two sides of the same coin.
Leaders must first create cultures when they form groups and organizations. Once these organizational cultures exist, they determine the criteria for leadership and who will become a leader. A leader is successful when he or she can create an organizational culture responsive to the social contexts expected by its followers,

Culture and Leadership

Theory Z : From ethnocentric to global – focus on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job; promote stable employment, high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction (Ouchi, 1981)

Servant leadership: From privilege to inclusive - (Greenleaf) Servant-leaders achieve results for their organizations by giving priority attention to the needs of their colleagues and those they serve. They are humble stewards of their organization's resources (human, financial and physical).

Daoist leadership: Promoting different worldviews and cultural values - (Y-T Lee, 2007) like water (altruistic, modest, adaptable and flexible, clear and transparent, soft but strong)

Feminist Leadership: Does difference make a difference?

Invisible and Reluctant Leadership: Promoting ethnic minority perspectives
Creating New Paradigms

Multiple and intersecting dimensions of identity, including race and gender influence the exercise of leadership (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010)

Leaders with bicultural racial/ethnic identities often have a cognitive flexibility or codeswitching ability

Constraints of social role perceptions and expectations

Influence of different world views

Conformity to power elite dominant in that culture
Leader Identity: Authenticity

Salience of dimensions of race, ethnicity, religion, social class, sexual orientation, gender, disability, etc.
LMX leadership theories favor dominant groups
Leadership identity associated with social power
Social Identities and Leadership

Status Characteristics and emergence of leadership
Double standards: Influence of social categories on expectations of leaders
Procedural Fairness
Influence and Individual-centric vs. Collective-centric identity
Social Power and Leadership Power

Credible Leadership
Looks the role
Projecting a leaderful image
Managing one’s image
Remaining authentic
Intersection with marginal status
Dress – distractions and stereotypes (too feminine, too ethnic)
Communication styles–being ignored, not yielding the floor when others are too dominant
Balance those prescribed behaviors though they may contradict expectations
Image Management

Transformational leadership as a process where leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of raising one another to higher levels of morality and motivation. Transformational leaders appeal to higher ideals and values of followers; they may model these values and use charismatic methods to attract people (Burns, 1978).
Transformational vs. Transactional in the 21st century
Resurgence of Charisma
Is it different in women and men?
Is it different in individualistic vs. collectivistic societies
Transformational Leadership

Virtuous Leadership
Failure of Leadership
Fairness: Procedurally Fair

Ethical Leadership
Power: Competition and Cooperation
Collectivism and Individualism
Egalitarianism: Masculinity-Femininity
Humane and Social Responsibility

Global Contexts: Cultural Orientation Value Dimensions

Social Zeitgeist
In-Groups vs. Out-Groups
Masculinized Contexts
Minority status: Oppression when cultural values and orientation differs

Diverse Contexts: Influence of Lived Experiences

Role Constraints
Double Binds
Biased Performance Appraisals
Intersections of Race, Ethnicity and Gender in Masculinized Contexts

Those from collectivistic cultures, negotiation is influenced by the expectation of a relationship compared with those from individualistic cultures who may be more task oriented

Thomas (1976) offers a model of different styles for handling conflict
Avoid-low on cooperation and assertive
Accommodate – concern for other; lack concern for self; cooperative but unassertive (yerng)
Compete – assertive and uncooperative
Compromise – intermediate; each give up something
Collaborate – win-win; high on assertive and cooperation

Cross-Cultural Differences
Asians prefer avoiding and accommodating styles while expatriates US and Canada prefer competing, collaborating and compromising (McKenna, 1995)
Asians – avoid to preserve the relationship
Mexico – concern for others lead to accommodate and collaborate
Americans concern with own outcomes lead to compete

Problem: Thomas interprets these styles by ranking them from unassertive to assertive
Cultural Differences in Negotiation

What is the issue you need to negotiate? State in in 1-2 sentences
What is the negotiating environment?
Who do you need to negotiate with to achieve your objective?
What are your dominant feelings related to the negotiation?
List your strengths and weaknesses in this negotiation
What do you want to get out of this negotiation?
Have you attempted to do this before? Were you successful?

Exercise: Negotiation

Social identities influence how we lead
Cultural values
Minority status
Both leaders and members bring their social identities to the interaction
Members will have perceptions and expectations of leaders based on their social identities
Power emanates from leadership role but may be modulated by perceptions of power associated with social identity roles
Legitimacy –title gives credibility, but white males may not need it because of their privilege

What we know: Learning from Experience

Chin, J. L. (April 2010) Special Issue: Diversity and Leadership. . American Psychologist, 65(3), 149-225.
Chin, J. L. (2013) Diversity Leadership: Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Minority Status. Open Journal of Leadership 2 (1), 1-10. (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojl)
Chin, et al (2007) Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices. NY: Blackwell.
Eagly, A. H. & Carli, L. (2007). Through the labyrinth: The truth about how women become leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

20th century: global leadership was characterized by a conqueror-colonial mentality. Western countries colonized the countries they conquered; their group became the country’s new power elite.
Ethical Leadership
Based on Daoism as a way to understand human existence. Using water as a metaphor for leadership, a Daoist leadership style is deemed distinctive but useful. Like water, Lee posits that a Daoist leadership style is:
adaptable and flexible
clear and transparent
soft but strong—an Asian version of the Big Five.
Using Asian metaphors, Lee describes leadership as like water—flexible, modes itself to the shape of its container, adaptable, humble because it is always on bottom, and powerful because it can mold mountains as it flows.
Humane Leadership
Confucian leadership
Benevolent Paternalism
From cookie cutter to diverse
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