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Aurora

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by

Jess Flay

on 3 December 2012

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Transcript of Aurora

By Jess Flay Auroras What is an Aurora? * Southern lights (aurora australis) and the Northern lights (aurora borealis) Why do they appear? At what altitudes do they occur? * High speed particles hit atoms in Earth's atmosphere * These come from solar winds blowing outward from the Sun
* The electrons hit an atom or molecule which gives an electron in the atom a higher energy level
* The released energy is the auroras light What colours can they be? What causes these colours? Where do they occur? Are there different shapes? When do they occur? How long do they last? What do their names mean? * The most common colours are green, red and blue
* Mixtures of these colours form other colours * The most common heights is from about 100 km to 300 km Who named them? Do they make sounds? Bibliography * Oxygen molecules make the green Aurora
* Oxygen atoms cause the red colours
* Blue aurora are from nitrogen molecules
* Hydrogen atoms cause a maroon colour Where is the best place to see them? * Commonly by the north or south magnetic poles
* Can appear anywhere around the world * All the time you just can't see them
* More commonly on a solar active year which usually happens every 11 years * For the northern lights the best places to see them are Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Siberia.
* The best place to see the southern lights is from Antarctica, but also can be seen down the bottom of Australia like Tasmania * Auroras can form different shapes like arcs, bends, rays, and shapeless glows.
* Some Auroras start motionless then they dance, shift and weave. * Faint auroras might only be seen for a few seconds
* Auroras caused by a major solar storm might flicker off and on for several days
* An average aurora might last an hour or two * Aurora, named after the Roman goddess of dawn
* The aurora borealis, the northern lights, the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas.
* The aurora australis, the southern lights, Australis is the Latin word for "of the South". * The northern light was named by Pierre Gassendi
* Captain James Cook named the southern lights * Over 200 years there has been reports of auroras making sounds
* The sounds are described as hissing, whooshing, swishing, and sometimes crackling noises. Are we the only planet to see them? * Earth is not the only planet to have auroras
* Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are some planets that we have witnessed auroras on Both north and south auroral ovals on Saturn NASA Hubble Space Telescope The northern auroral oval on Jupiter NASA Hubble Space Telescope Space Shuttle NASA The auroral oval around the north pole - Dynamics Explorer Image NASA Guide to the aurora n.d., , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://www.spaceacademy.net.au/env/terra/aurora/aurora.htm>.
Books: A popular level book
Aurora: The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science
by Harald Falck-Ytter [published 2000 by Steiner Books]
A technical level book
Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora
by Syun-Ichi Akasofu [published 2002 by Springer]

An intermediate level book
Majestic Lights: The Aurora in Science, History and the Arts
by Robert Eather [published 1980 by American Geophysical Union]

Two books for the practical aurora watcher
Aurora Watcher's Handbook
by Neil Davis [published 1992 by University of Alaska Press]

Aurora: Observing and recording nature's spectacular light show
by Neil Bone [published by Springer]

Web: An auroral tutorial from Berkeley
Auroras from Solar Terrestrial Dispatch, Canada
Auroral powerpoint presentation from University of New Hampshire
Auroras from the US Space Environment Center
Auroral links from the University of Alaska Geophysics Institute
The Aurora Color Television Project Who discovered the first aurora n.d., , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/a10455.html>. Aurora literary art's journey n.d., , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://aurora-eku.org/2.html>. Auroras-Living with the Stars n.d., , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://passporttoknowledge.com/sun/interact/faq211.html>. Salat Shots, T n.d., Aurora Borealis FAQs, , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://www.aurorahunter.com/aurora-borealis.php>. Heckert, P n.d., What causes northern and southern lights, , accessed 19 November 2012, <http://suite101.com/article/what-causes-northern-and-southern-lights-a134273>. From International Space Station NASA Green Aurora over Hobart Tasmania August 2005 - Image from Dalas and Beth Scott XXxPembexXx, 2011, Time Lapse Auroras Over Norway HD, online video, April 12 2011, accessed 21 November 2012, < Pierre Gassendi ( 1592 - 1655) Images n.d., , accessed 21 November 2012, <www.google.com.au/search>.
Images from prezi Captain James Cook
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