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# Universal Gravitation

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by

## Emily Schreiner

on 2 December 2014

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#### Transcript of Universal Gravitation

"Everything pulls on everything else."
Universal Gravitation
The Falling Apple
The Falling Moon
The Falling Earth
Gravity and Distance:
The Inverse-Square Law
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Gravitational Field
Gravitational Field Inside
a Planet
Newton reasoned that the moon is falling toward Earth for the same reason an apple falls from a tree--they are both pulled by Earth's gravity.
Reasoning from falling apple led Newton to investigation further, this time, with the moon.

Discovered that the moon is actually falling toward Earth but has great enough tangential velocity to avoid hitting Earth.
...Newton's theory of gravity confirmed the Copernican theory of the solar system.
Gravity is universal.

Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

...in other words: every object attracts every other object with a force.
Gravity decreases (weakens) as the (square) of distance increases.
Occupies the space surrounding a massive body.
Gravitational field of Earth at
its center is zero.
[Remember this? Copernicus said that the Earth wasn't the center of the universe and got persecuted for it.]
Hear! Hear!
It's finally official...
Weight &
Weightlessness
Force against Earth is the sensation we interpret as weight.
Therefore, the condition of
weightlessness
is NOT the absence of gravity; rather, it is the absence of a support force.
OCEAN TIDES
Ocean tides are
caused by differences
in the gravitational pull of the moon on opposite sides of earth.
Hmmm...
What about other factors that affect ocean tides?
Black Holes
Ultimately
, the formulation of the
law of universal gravitation
is one of the major reasons for the success in science that followed, for it
provided hope that
the
other phenomena
of the world
might
also
be described
by
equally simple and universal laws
.
Sun
Earth
Remember scientific notations?
Extreme high/low tide that occurs when the sun, Earth, and moon are all lined up.
Pull of moon and sun on Earth are perpendicular to each other, causing "average" high/low tides.
Spring Tides
Neap Tides