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Biology Final Exam

by: Johnathan Beldin and Sam West

Johnathan Beldin

on 24 May 2011

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Transcript of Biology Final Exam

Biology 2nd Semester Final Exam By:
Johnathan Beldin
Sam West You may get motion sickness from viewing this presentation. Now, we will begin making connections Diseases such as Down's Syndrome (when there is an extra chromosome) is caused by nondisjunction in meiosis, when the chromosomes fail to separate correctly during anaphase I or anaphase II depending on whether the homologous chromosomes separate in correctly or the sister chromatids. A note to the viewer Lissencephaly is a disease which makes the brain smooth, decreasing the surface area to volume ratio. Because of this decrease, the disease can be life threataning because it is much more difficult for the brain cells to transport materials across the membrane, whether it be active or passive transprt, there are just less openings for things to pass through. The reason you get a headache when you are overly dehydrated is because your brain shrinks. Yes. You heard us. Your brain shrinks because your cells become hypotonic to your body fluids, and to maintain the osmotic balance, water is osmosisized out of the cell to make it isotonic to the body fluids. The phospholipid bilayer is connected to some of the strangest things. An example is
when a virus attaches itself to your cell it doesn't just sink in. It picks that cell for a reason because it has the right integral membrane protiens. These protiens allow the virus or viruses to enter that cell and take it over as a host cell for its reproduction. Active transport and passive transport go together like Oreos and milk. Think of it like a roller coaster ride. Active transport uses energy to move the molecuules up to the top of the roller coaster, and passive transport uses all of the stored potential energy at the top to send them flying back down. The sodium potassium pump is connected to electrochemical potential (electrochemicals are known as ions example is sodium, or something that is bound ionically and holds a charge/ the potential part refers to the grouping of charges that repel or pull each other, kinda like magnets) because depending on how high the electrochemical potential is depends on how hard the sodium potassium pump has to work to keep potassium in and sodium out. The higher the electrochemical potential is, the harder it is to keep the ions where the cell wants them to be. Uncommon allele inheritance is really because of meiosis, crossing over of the homologous chromosomes in prophase I and the random alignment of the homologous chromosomes in metaphase I are both contributors to this. Cell metabolism is connected to amino acids. how? well you see, amino acids form together into a linear chain known as a polypeptide. And when two of these polypeptides connect they make a protien. And the number one thing that sustains cell metabolism are enzymes. What makes an enzyme? protiens of course. Photosynthesis is connected to global warming. You see, global warming is caused by the excess build up of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, and it traps in the heat from sunlight. Because of the deforestation of the rainforests, there is less photosynthesis than there should be. Since there is less photosynthesis, less carbon dioxide is needed to be absorbed for the Calvin cycle. Hence why planting trees helps to reduce the effects of all the dumb stuff that humans put into the air. Photosynthesis is connected to global warming. Global warming is caused by excess build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the heat from sunlight not being able to exit the atmosphere. One of those greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide which is needed for the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. Because of deforestation, there is less "green" on the Earth, which means less photosynthesis is occuring in the world. Less photosynthesis means less intake of carbon dioxide through the stomata and into the stroma of the chloroplast. So if us humans as bright as we are could use sustainable development and plant a tree for each one we cut down, the process of global warming would slow down. Cell Respiration is like an artificial fire log plant. Because just like in cell respiration something is being broken down in this is case wood chips or scrap wood into a fine saw dust. In cell respiration it brakes down the glucose into pyruvate then brakes that down into Acetyl CoA. The fire log plant then takes the fine saw dust and strips it of all miosture then compacts the dust into a log that gives of energy in the form of heat when lit. Just like in cell respiration during the Kreb's cycle, when the Acetyl CoA is stripped of all its electrons, and no trace of the original raw materials are left. And to top this level four conection medley off, we are going to make the best connection made in all of life...Literally. The only reason how and why any scientist can get information in any way or obtain it or find things out is all conected to the same sequence of events diabolically made by Ibn al-Haytham. The scientific method; the thing we all use every day whether we know it or not. All the things we learned about this year in science all revolved around the scientific method. Unique examples could be, me (Sam) hypothesizing on whether or not I wanted chocolate milk for lunch or a gatorade. Basically simple concept, detailed concepts, unique concepts or just random thoughts are all mini hypotheses that we want to find out if they work or not. Or if they will benifit us or something else. The scientific method ties all logical thought into one basic word; learning. Protein synthesis is a bit like how a computer runs. The DNA makes its RNA copy to start with in transcription, the RNA is very difficult to read, just like a computer really is like. Computers only know two numbers, 0 and 1. Translation is like how the computer allows us to function and understand it. Everything gets changed so that the ribosome can make the correct protein, and we can function and understand the computer and it's not just a series of two numbers, because how would we know what everything means? Evolution is a bit like how computers have changed. The first computer started out as a big object that took up an entire room. It was really slow. Slowly but surely, the computer developed so that it was smaller, and faster. The first computer only had one operating system, and one brand. The division of all this is like speciation, the OS developed into three, Mac OS X, Wnidows, and Linux. The brands split into Dell, Sony, HP, Apple and all of the other wonderful people who make us computers. They all have similar features, but ther is something that makes them each a little (or a lot) different. Just like the !5 difference between the DNA of humans and chimps. The reason you get a headache when you are overly dehydrated is because your brain shrinks. Yes. You heard us. Your brain shrinks because your cells become hypotonic to your body fluids, and to maintain the osmotic balance, water is osmosisized out of the cell to make it isotonic to the body fluids. Sadly this amazing level 4.1 connection medley has come to an end. but we hoped you enjoyed hearing our awesome connections mrs. E THE END :)
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