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Patricia Martinez

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Transcript of SCULPTURE

sculpture sculpture sculpture
Sculpere -> Sculptura -> Sculpture
late Middle English: from Latin sculptura, from sculpere ‘carve.’

It is a three dimensional (3D) artwork created by shaping or combining hard and/or plastic materials, sound, text, light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass or wood.

For thousands of years sculpture has filled many roles in human life. The earliest sculpture was probably made to supply magical help to hunters.
From its beginnings until the present, sculpture has been largely monumental. In the 15th century, monuments to biblical heroes were built on the streets of Italian cities, and in the 20th century a monument to a songwriter was built in the heart of New York City. Great fountains with sculpture in the center are as commonplace beside modern skyscrapers as they were in the courts of old palaces. The ancient Sumerians celebrated military victory with sculpture. The participants of World War II also used sculpture to honor their soldiers.
Prehistoric Sculpture

Oldest of the arts. Prehistoric sculpture was never made to be beautiful. It was always made to be used in rituals. In their constant fight for survival, early people made sculpture to provide spiritual support.
Egyptian sculpture and all Egyptian art were based on the belief in a life after death. The body of the Egyptian ruler, or pharaoh, was carefully preserved, and goods were buried with him to provide for his needs forever. The pyramids, great monumental tombs of Giza, were built for the most powerful early rulers. The pharaoh and his wife were buried in chambers cut deep inside the huge blocks of stone.
The earliest examples of sculpture in this region were formed of light materials: baked and unbaked clay, wood or combinations of wood, shells, and gold leaf. A group of stone figures from Tell Asmar depicts gods, priests, and worshipers in a way very different from Egyptian sculpture. These figures are cone-shaped, with flaring skirts, small heads, huge, beaklike noses, and large, staring eyes.
Aegean Civilization

Just a few examples of sculpture remain from the colorful Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. Ivory and terra-cotta; small statuettes of snake goddesses, priestesses, and acrobats; and cups with such scenes in relief as a bull being caught in a net or harvesters returning from the fields give lively suggestions of Minoans in action.
Greek Sculpture
Etruscan and Roman
Some of the sculpture and many vases are Greek, while others are lively Etruscan translations of Greek forms. Many small bronze figures of farmers, warriors, or gods show the great talents of the Etruscans as metalworkers and sculptors.
Early Christian Sculpture
Sculpture, however, was not a natural form of expression for the early Christians. This was because one of the Ten Commandments forbids the making of graven (carved) images. Many early Christians interpreted this commandment, just as the Hebrews had, to mean that it was wrong to make any images of the human figure. Eventually church authorities decided that art could serve Christianity. It was only the making of idols (false gods) that was regarded as a breach of the commandment.
Romanesque Sculpture
These artists worked on a bolder and larger scale than had been possible for hundreds of years. For their ideas they looked to the best examples of great structures they knew—Roman buildings. The term "Romanesque" suggests the Roman qualities of the art of the 11th and 12th centuries. Important changes were made by these later artists. German Romanesque churches differ from Italian ones and Spanish from French ones. Ideas of carving, building, and painting circulated freely, for people often went on pilgrimages to worship at sacred sites in different countries.
Gothic Sculpture
Sculpture after the 12th century gradually changed from the clear, concentrated abstractions of Romanesque art to a more natural and lifelike appearance. Human figures shown in natural proportions were carved in high relief on church columns and portals.
Renaissance Sculpture
As early as the 13th century the Italians planted the seeds of a new age: the Renaissance. Although the elements of medieval and Byzantine art contributed a great deal to the formation of Renaissance sculpture, Italian artists were interested in reviving the classical approach to art. ("Renaissance" means "rebirth.")
Baroque Sculpture
Sculptors in the 17th century continued to deal with the same wide variety of sculptural problems as their Renaissance predecessors, using the human figure as a form of expression. They reacted, however, against the mannerism of late 16th century sculptors.
Rococo Sculpture
The basic qualities of 17th-century art were carried forward into the 18th century but were transformed for the taste of a different generation. The term "rococo" suggests the preference for gayer, lighter, and more decorative effects in sculpture and in all the arts.
Neoclassic and Romantic
The pendulum of taste swung in a new direction in the late 18th century while Clodion (1738-1814) and other rococo sculptors were still active. This direction, called neoclassic to describe the deliberate return to classical subject matter and style, lasted in strength for nearly a century.
Although the Romantic movement was growing, many artists still preferred to work in the classical tradition followed in the academies. In the 1860's a young sculptor named Auguste Rodin was turned away three times from the École des Beaux-Arts, the academy in Paris. By the end of the century he was the most famous sculptor in France and throughout most of Europe.
20th-Century Sculpture
The 20th century was an age of experimentation with new ideas, new styles, and new materials. Studies of the human figure gave way to new subjects: dreams, ideas, emotions, and studies of form and space. Plastic, chromium, and welded steel were used, as well as boxes, broken automobile parts, and pieces of old furniture.
Around 600 B.C., Greece developed one of the great civilizations in the history of the world. Sculpture became one of the most important forms of expression for the Greeks.
The Greek belief that "man is the measure of all things" is nowhere more clearly shown than in Greek sculpture. The human figure was the principal subject of all Greek art. Beginning in the late 7th century B.C., sculptors in Greece constantly sought better ways to represent the human figure.

- The term 'bronze' is often used for other metals, including brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc.
- Stone is a very challenging sculpting material, one false stroke of the hammer on the chisel and the entire statue is left permanently marred or even ruined.
- Wood is carved in a similar way to stone.
- The main source of ivory is elephant tusks from North Africa and India.
- Fired clay is known as 'terracotta' (cooked earth). The firing irreversibly changes the clay, making it stronger and capable of receiving a variety of surface finishes.
Wax, Cluster, Plastic, Aluminum and Metal
Space & Mass
Material & Texture
Form, Color, Line
processes & techniques
- the artist subtracts or cuts away from a solid material to reach the desired form.
- is the process of manipulating soft materials to create a three-dimensional form.
- is a method of obtaining the permanence of a modeled work
- combining and joining various materials to form a three-dimensional object.
1. Free-standing Sculpture
2. Sound Sculpture
3. Light Sculpture
4. Jewelry
5. Relief
6. Site Specific Art
7. Kinetic Sculpture
8. Statue
9. Stacked Art
10. Architectural
12. Humorous
13. Food Sculpture
14. Sand Sculpture
15. Bronze
16. Abstract
17. Glass Sculpture
is any work of sculpture which can be viewed from any angle around the pedestal.
is an intermediary and time based art form in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces sound, or the reverse
Is an intermediary and time based art form in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces light, or the reverse
Objects of personal adornment made of precious metals, gems or imitation materials.
is "sculpture that projects in vary degrees from a two-dimensional background." Relief sculpture is among the oldest forms of sculpted art.
is artwork created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork.
Kinetic sculpture is free-standing sculpture that moves, either by mechanical power or under the power of wind or water.
A statue is a sculpture representing one or more people or animals
A form of sculpture formed by assembling objects and stacking them.

Is the term for the use of sculpture by an architect and/or sculptor in the design of a building, bridge, mausoleum or other such project. It has also been defined as, an integral part of a building or sculpture created especially to decorate or embellish an architectural structure.
11. Paper Sculpture
The art of modelling with folded paper.
Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold.
Abstract Sculpture is a sensual expression of the mind to the heart. It does not promote a full accuracy of the real world, but does so intentionally so that its elements can penetrate the cognitive thinking of an audience.
18. Ice Sculpture
Abstract Sculpture is a sensual expression of the mind to the heart. It does not promote a full accuracy of the real world, but does so intentionally so that its elements can penetrate the cognitive thinking of an audience.
Two Distinctive methods
Additive Process
- Materials are added again and again to build up a form. For example, a clay.
Subtractive Process
- The artist removes or subtracts materials to create the form. For example in the marble or stone or wood carving.

Sculpture in the philippines
Brief History
In the Philippines, particularly among the Ifugaos, the “bulol”(fertility) is considered as an Ifugao granary god. It is a wooden sculpture in human form to assure bountiful harvests for the natives.

Modern Period
A familiar example of sculpture with the integration of architecture is the Art Deco Style of the Metropolitan Theater at Liwasang Bonifacio completed by Juan Arellano in 1931.
Woodcarving comes in ornamental form in the houses of the Maranao like that of the "torogan" which features the"panolong", an extended beam carved with the Sarimanok or the Naga design.


The word ceramic was derived from the Greek word keramos meaning a potter; it was also derived from a Sanskrit word meaning “to burn.”
There are different products classified under ceramics. These are pottery, glass, structural ceramics, refractories, abrasives,cement, tiles and plastics.

Napoleon V. Abueva
Father of Philippine Modern Sculpture
At the age of 46, he became the youngest recipient of the National Artist Award.
“Dambana ng Kagitingan”
The bronze figure of Teodoro M. Kalaw in front of the National Library.
Guillermo Tolentino
National Artist Awards for Sculpture in 1973.
"Father of Philippine Arts"
"Bonifacio Monument"
"The Oblation"
Statue of Liberty, New York, United States – Located on Liberty Island in Manhattan, the statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886 as a gift to the United States from the people of France.
Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – The statue is considered the largest Art Deco statue in the world and the 5th largest statue of Jesus in the world.
The Motherland Calls, Volgograd, Russia – The Motherland Calls statue, or simply The Motherland is a statue in Volgograd (formerly known as Stalingrad) commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad.
The Great Sphinx Of Giza, Egypt – Commonly referred to as the Sphinx, it is a limestone statue of a mythical creature with a lion’s body and a human head.
The Little Mermaid, Denmark – A bronze statue depicting a mermaid, in Copenhagen, Denmark.
The Rizal Monument originally called the Motto Stella (Guiding star) is a memorial monument in Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines built to commemorate the Filipino nationalist, José Rizal.
The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park and a national shrine located in Quezon City, capital of the Philippines from 1948 to 1976.
Andres Bonifacio Monument is a monument dedicated to the lifework of Gat.
The People Power Monument is a sculpture of towering people commemorating the People Power Revolution of 1986 located on the corner of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or EDSA and White Plains Avenue in Barangay Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City.
The Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is a 4.25-inch high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE.
This head dates from 1200 to 900 BCE and is 2.9 meters high and 2.1 meters wide.
A sculpted head of Amenhotep III
Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
One of 18 Statues of Gudea, a ruler around 2090 BCE
Bronze head of a king, perhaps Sargon of Akkad, from Nineveh (now in Iraq), Akkadian period, c. 2300bc. In the Iraqi Museum, Baghdad. Height 30.5 cm.
The Lion Gate
Cycladic idols
Laocoön and His Sons
Winged Victory of Samothrace

Etruscan hut urn (c. 800 B.C.E.), impasto (Vatican Museums)
Trajan's Column
Altarpiece, ca. 1390–1400
Reliquary Bust of Saint Balbina, ca. 1520–30
Gloucester Candlestick
It was made for Gloucester Cathedral between 1104 and 1113, and is one of the outstanding survivals of English Romanesque metalwork.
French ivory Virgin and Child, end of 13th century, 25 cm high, curving to fit the shape of the ivory tusk
South portal of Chartres Cathedral (c. 1215-20)
The Pietà is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Apollo and Daphne is a life-sized Baroque marble sculpture by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini, executed between 1622 and 1625
Pierre Paul Puget, Perseus and Andromeda, 1715, Musée du Louvre
Pair of lovers group of Nymphenburg porcelain, c. 1760, modelled by Franz Anton Bustelli
Auguste Préault, Silence
Nydia by Randolph Rogers
The Thinker
The Burghers of Calais
George Segal Street Crossing, 1992
Anish Kapoor, Turning the World Upside Down, Israel Museum, 2010

The Oblation (Filipino: Pahinungod, Oblasyon) is a concrete statue by Filipino artist Guillermo E. Tolentino which serves as the iconic symbol of the University of the Philippines.
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