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The Role of Women In European History

AP Euro Information provided by a handout titled "Women In European History" created by Mr. Steven Mercado & Mrs. Jessica Young.
by

Kristin Palomares

on 20 April 2011

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Transcript of The Role of Women In European History

The Role Of Women In European History The Renaissance The Reformation Querelles des Femmes "The Problem of Women" New debate emerged over women's nature and their proper role in society - Increased Education
- Status lost compared to Middle Ages (for some social classes)
- Women were to be "ornaments" to their husbands
Important Noblewomen Christine de Pisan Isabella d'Este: Mantua Artemesia Gentilleschi Marriage European Family Unit - Nuclear Family (poorer populations)
- Wealther people tended to have extended families Based On Economic Considerations, Not Love - Dowries were extremely important in wealthy families
- Women tended to play a more significant role in the economy in Northern Europe Average Age For Women: <20 (Mid-Late 20s for Men) - Class issues: rich and poor tended to marry earlier than middle classes
- In Italy, the age gap between husbands and wives was much larger than in Northern Europe Increased Infanticide and Abandonment Among The Poor - Increase in foundling hospitals
- 2/3 of abandoned babies were girls Divorce - Available in certain areas compared to Middle Ages where divorce was non-existent
Castiglione Women were to make themselves pleasing to the man (Upper Class) Double Standard Women were to remain chaste until marriage while men were permitted to "sow their wild oats" Prostitution Not considered a serious crime Rape Important Female Rulers Catherine Sforza Isabella I Mary Tudor Elizabeth I Catherine de Medici Persecution of Alleged Witches - Beginning of witchcraft as official RCC dogma in 1484
- Large number of older women
Protestant Catholic Churches had greater official control over marriage - Suppressed common law marriages
- catholic governments followed suit Marriage became more companionate Luther and Katherina Von Bora Increased Women's Literacy Needed to read the Bible and to teach children Lost some opportunities in church service that Catholic women enjoyed Sex was an act to be enjoyed by a husband and wife Women continued to enjoy opportunities in the Church through religious orders Teresa de Avila Angela Merici
Ursuline Order 18th Century Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution Marriage Important Female Rulers Explosion In Illegitimate Births Decrease In Witch Hunts Decline in women's opportunities as midwives Increased professionalization of medicine Enlightenment French Revolution 19th Century Enclosure Movement significantly altered peasant life Women had fewer opportunities to make profits off of work on common lands Women increasingly worked away from home in the towns/cities - Most work was domestic
- Many became prostitutes
Social Consequences Of working Away From Home - More autonomy
- Could save money for own dowries
- slightly more choice in marriage partners
- less communal protection from economic and sexual exploitation Growth Of Cottage Industry - women increasingly were @ home
- It became increasingly difficult for peasant families to feed young women due to loss of common lands
- Young women were sent away to work Large numbers of women worked in factories in late 18th-century England Family Wage Economy Declined somewhat after the Factory Act of 1833 put limits on child labor Based more on romance as the Enlightenment moves into the Modern Era - Late 20s: Average age for marriage
- Many women didn't marry; "Spinsters"
- Large population of unmarried middle class women is a new phenomenon Protestant women still expected to manage the home Catholic women still had self-development options in religious orders Spare the rod, spoil the child View On Child Care As families get smaller and children live longer, people invest more love and economic resources in their children as time goes on Increased infanticide Foundling hospitals created Due to new scientific ideas and the decline of political power of the RCC Catherine The Great Maria Teresa Science Salons Arts Views On Female Education Generally, the Enlightenment ideology didn't like or respect women. When women tried to apply its ideas of freedom and equality to their own sex, even the most radical leaders of the French Revolution repressed them. Emilie du Chatelet Translated Newton's Principia Voltaire's mistress madame de Geoffrin Louise de Warens Germaine de Stael Madame Roland Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun Rousseau: Emile, 1762 Catharine Macaulay: Letters On Education, 1787 Hannah More: "Bluestockings" Olympe de Gouges Mary Wollstonecraft Vindication of the Rights of Woman 1791 The Rights of Woman 1792 Participation With The Sans Culottes Society of Revolutionary Republican Women Closing of Women's Political Clubs by the National Convention Revolutionary leaders identified women with the debauchery and style of the Ancien Regime. They thought it was not "manly" and sought to keep women out of public life. Victims of Reign of Terror De Gouges, Roland Napoleonic France - Civil Code reasserted Old Regime's patriarchal system
- Women gained few rights (except inheritance rights); leads to increased use of birth control and smaller families
- State paternalism
- Criticism of Napoleon's regime by Madame de Stael Compared With The Russian Revolution - ideals
- what rights and privileges did they ultimately receive? Emerging ideology about women following the French Revolution grappled with the problem of women’s nature and what it meant for women’s rights. “Individualist” feminists argued that women had the same “natural” rights as men and were, therefore, entitled to the same legal, economic, social and educational opportunities. Their ideas derived from Enlightenment ideology and were later embraced by thinkers such as John Stuart Mill. “Relational” feminists
argued that women’s nature was fundamentally different from men’s and, significantly, just as
important. They argued that women needed education to fulfill their special role as mothers and
homemakers, to preserve and impart the native culture of their homelands and to provide healthy
children for the nation, the so-called “mother-educator.” These thinkers were sympathetic to the
new movements of Romanticism and nationalism. Bread Riots March on Versailles Roland, Geoffrin Salons Charlotte Corday Marriage and Family Status of Women Work After 1850, men worked in factories while women stayed at home Protective legislation drove women out of certain kinds of employment. As the century progressed, more jobs were "gendered" and in jobs defined as "wome's work" wages went down Ideology Of Domesticity - Reinforced in home schooling or church schools
- Victorian ideal By the late 19th century, only poor women worked outside of the home Middle class women began working to organize and expand their rights Socialist Views Saint-Simonian Socialism - Emphasized complementarity of the sexes
- Motherhood is the common denominator of female experience but also "free love"
- Feminist first and socialist second Jeanne Derion Petitioned, unsuccessfully, to run for the Legislative Assembly as a candidate of the Democratic Socialist Party Louise Otto - German socialist
- Emphasized women's special nature and importance to the state
- Saw marriage as a "degraded" institution impairing the development of womens' character Marxist Women Argued that women were doubly opporessed, both by the capitalist society and also by men Worked for socialism first because they thought it would lead to equality between the sexes Ideal of romantic love becomes important Fewer children per family; more love towards children Middle class more effected by economics - Many men married late
- women closely monitored
- sexual double standard Rate of illegitmacy declined after 1850 in working class Prostitution sought by middle and upper-middle class men Freud Early childhood is vital Lower class children less dependent on parents financially than middle class children Art Romanticism Realism George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Dupin) George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) Women played a major role in social reforms in the mid-late 19th century - Catholic orders organized schools and hospitals
- Temperance
- Increase of female teachers
- Trend toward gendering certain occupations that had the effect of kicking men out and also making the wages lower
Pacifism
- Bertha von Suttner's Lay Down Your Arms, 1889
- Women's Internaitonal League for Peace and Freedom. Role of Jane Addams Modernism in Western Europe The "New Woman" - Drop in the brith rate became alarming
- Ellen Key, Nelly Roussel, Marguerite Durand published a daily newspaper for women, La Fronde
- Reformers sought to reform marriage to icnrease its attractiveness to women
- Women gained legal right to wages and property ownership
- Right to work without husband's permission (many educated women worked in white-collar jobs)
- Legalization of divorce in some coutnries (i.e. France)
- Government subsidies to needy mothers (i.e. Britain in 1913) Female Suffrage Finland First to grant female suffrage in 1906 By 1920 Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Netherlands, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Britain, Germany, Austria Result of WWI England John Stuart Mill The Subjection of Women (1869) Didn't get Universal Manhood Suffrage until after WWI Many feminists and socialists were frustrated in their efforts tow ork for female rights Leadership of suffrage reform movements felt that arguing for women's suffrage would hurt the cause of UMS Rise of professional suffrage associations Emmeline Pankhurst Women's Social and Political Union Militant tactics: violence, bombings, destruction of property, picketing Parliament Women's participation in WWI Representation of the People Act 1918, age 30 and over First act of parliament to include almost all men in the political system and began the inclusion of women Representation of the People Act 1928, age 21 and over
Female suffrage after WWI in Western and Central Europe Predominantly middle-class movement 20th Century Russia Equality After Russian Revolution (In Theory) - Voting rights
- Equal access to education
- Job opportunities
- No secual double standard; increased abortion Italy & Germany - Fascist
- women encouraged to have many children for the benefit of the state
- women denied access to high-paying job opportunities After WWI, several countries passed repressive legislation against women in reporductive freedom and employment opportunities Result of unemployment that followed the war combined with the huge death rate and over-supply of women and under-supply of babies Post-WWII - baby boom after WWII
- Women having earlier and fewer children (2 per family)
- Middle class children less economically dependent on parents
- Women remained in the work force in larger numbers Women's Rights Movement and Feminism Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique 1949 1963 1965 End to ban on birth control in France Protest marches in favor of abortion rights and decriminalization of homosexuality Some feminists rejected "feminine" conventions such as bras, cosmetics, and high heels Demands for equal pay for equal work Italy in 1970s Women gained divorce, access to birth control information, and abortion rights Review Explain the role of women during... The Renaissance The Reformation The Enlightenment The 19th Century The 20th Century 18th century French Revolution Review Explain the changing role of divorce throughout European history. Explain how the family unit transformed throughout European history. Explain the process to achieve women's suffrage in Europe. Compare Protestant and Catholic views/treatment of women throughout European history. Did women have more or less rights during the French Revolution? How did economic status affect the role of women throuhgout European history?
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