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Holland's Theory of Personality

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Kim Thomas

on 11 April 2017

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Transcript of Holland's Theory of Personality

Holland's Theory of Personality
and Vocational Development

Basic Tenets & Assumptions
Construct of the Theory
Origin and Developer of Theory
Practical Interventions
Advantages and Limitations
Holland's Theory of Personality
and Vocational Development

Kimberly Thomas
Ashley Wanamaker
Kimberly Nelson
Carrie Le
Holland's Four Working Assumptions
1) Most individuals can be described by six personality types -
, and

2) Environments can be categorized by six types -
, and

3) People search for environments that let them use their
, and

4) Personality and environment interact to produce
Philosophical Assumptions
reciprocal relationship
exists between people and their environments.

is an
of one's personality.

Everyone has the
freedom of choice
Holland's Three Questions
1) What
of people and environment lead to positive and negative vocational outcomes?

2) What
of persons and environments lead to career stability or change over the life span.

3) What are the most
ways of providing assistance to people with career concerns?
(Swanson & Fouad, 2014)

Holland’s Hexagon

Calculus: The six types are arranged in a hexagonal structure, with the distance between types inversely proportional to their theoretical interrelations.
Key Constructs : Typology
"The typology provides a
for clients to
their own vocational personalities and see how they may
best fit
with the world of work."
(Swanson & Fouad, 2014, p.112)
Secondary Assumptions
refers to the match between a person and their environment in terms of the six types specified by the theory.

pertains to the degree of definition of an individual's interests.

is a reflection of the "internal coherence" (Spokanne, 1996) of an individual's interests in terms of the hexagonal arrangement.

provides an "estimate of the clarity and stability" (Holland, 1997, p.5) of a person's identity, goals, interests, and talents.
RIASEC Interest Types
(Swanson & Fouad, 2014)
Historical Context
Progressivism versus Social Darwinism
Social Reform Movement

Industrial Revolution

Standardized Testing Movement

Emergence of person-environment vocational
Developer of the Theory
John Lewis Holland

Personal Experiences
academic difficulties in childhood
undergraduate study
entrance to the work force

Graduate Study

(University of Minnesota)
"dustbowl empiricism"

Post-graduate work

Academic Legacy
research publications
instrument development

(Baker, 1999; Neukrug, 2012)
(APA, 2008; Baker, 1999; Hansen, 2011; Neukrug, 2012)
(APA, 2008; Brown & Lent; 2005; Gottfredson, 1999; Hansen, 2011)
Implications of Constructs & Assumptions
Client Behavior
guided by the constructs of
are assumed to have more

less challenging
experience regarding

vocational choices.

Work Environments
characterized by the constructs of high

consistency, differentiation, and
are assumed to have workers with heightened levels of "satisfaction, stability, and productivity" (Holland, 1997, p. 40).
EDPS 630
October 14, 2015
Most extensively researched career theory (Brown & Lent, 2005)
Empirical approach to revising theory over time (Nauta, 2010)
User-friendly and easy to interpret by counsellors and clients (Campbell & Borgen, 1999)
Accessible, e.g. available on the Internet
Many assessment tools available (Brown & Lent, 2013)
Widely applicable (Nauta, 2010)
Knowledge of a client's personality type can help guide counselling (Swanson & Fouad, 2015)
Clients explore more career options and experience greater certainty about career choice (as cited in Nauta, 2010)
Later revision of the theory acknowledged influences of gender, race or ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (Brown & Lent, 2013)
Easy access to assessment tools via the Internet makes it difficult to determine validity and reliability (Sampson, 2000)
Limited consideration for how early experiences influence personality (Gottfredson, 1999)
Only six personality and environment types; possibility of more? (Rounds, 1995)
Lack of consideration for barriers to accurate self-knowledge and self-evaluation (Nauta, 2010)
Effect size of studies on person-environment congruence is small (Nauta, 2010)
Limitations and constraints to choices (Swanson & Fouad, 2015)
Mixed findings regarding cross-cultural applications (Brown & Lent, 2013)
Case Example of Angela
21-year-old Canadian Caucasian female
Second year art history student
Only child; parents are divorced
Mom is an accountant; father is a car dealership sales manager
Artistic abilities in painting and graphic design
Enjoys interaction with people and aspects of teaching
Strong organizational and communication skills
Unaware of possible career options; experiencing anxiety about her future
Understand and Categorize
Establish working relationship
1. Strong Interest Inventory (SII) (Harmon et. al., 2005)
2. Self-Directed Search (SDS) (Holland, Powell, & Fritzsche, 1994)
Get to know client and their situation
Assess client and environment
Administer appropriate assessments
Explore and Educate
Discuss client-environment fit, including congruence, differentiation, and consistency as it applies to the client
Explore congruent options
1. Occupation Finder (Holland, 1994)
2. Education Opportunities Finder (Holland, 1994)
Counselling Interventions
Angela’s Code: ASC (Artistic, Social, & Conventional)
Explore Angela’s thoughts and feelings
Identify and remove barriers
Determine possible majors that are
congruent with Angela’s personality type
Limitation to intervention: lack of
exploration of other contextual factors
• http://www.truity.com/test/holland-code-career-test
• http://personality-testing.info/tests/RIASEC.php
• https://www.123test.com/holland-codes-career-tests/
• https://www.roguecc.edu/Counseling/HollandCodes/about.asp

Examples of Free Online Self Directed Search Assessments
II) Classifying Environments and Related Classification Materials

• Environmental Assessment Technique

• Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes
• Occupational Finder
• Educational Opportunities Finder
• Leisure Activities Finder
Notable Instruments and Classification Materials
(Nauta, 2015; and
Swanson & Fouad, 2015)

• Classifying Individuals
• Classifying Environments and Related Classification

I) Classifying Individuals – RIASEC Typology

• Self Directed Search (SDS)
• Vocational Performance Inventory
• Strong Interest Inventory
• Career Strategies Inventory
• Skills Confidence Inventory

(Harmon et. al., 2005;
Holland, Powell, & Fritzsche, 1994)
Person-environment fit:
Necessary to assess and identify Holland's RIASEC
Code for the individual and their environment(s)

Goal: Use information to increase:
-client self-awareness and self understanding
-increase ease of decision making, and
-increase positive vocational outcomes (satisfaction, stability, performance)

Rationale – Instruments and Related Materials
American Psychological Association. (2008). John L. Holland: Award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology.
American Psychological Association, 63
(8), 672-674. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.8.672

Baker, B. (1999). The Dangerous and the Good? Developmentalism, Progress, and Public Schooling.
American Educational Research Journal, 36
(4), 797-834. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/stable/pdf/1163521.pdf?acceptTC=true

Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (2013).
Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work
(2nd ed.). [Electronic book]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (2005).
Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work
. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Campbell, D. P., & Borgen, F. H. (1999). Holland’s theory and the development of interest inventories.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55,

Gottfredson, G. D. (1999). John L. Holland’s contributions to vocational psychology: A review and evaluation.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55
, 15-40.

(Holland, 1997)
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