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WWII

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Liz Steinmetz

on 27 April 2018

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Transcript of WWII

Firebombed
Dresden
, Germany to weaken German resistance
In March, 1945: Allies invaded Germany from the east and Soviets invaded from the west
April 30, 1945: Hilter committed suicide with cyanide pills and Germany surrendered
VE Day
, Victory in Europe Day, was May 8th, 1945
WWII in Europe
WWII on the Homefront
WWII in the Pacific
Causes and Overview of WWII
Causes
Causes of WWII:
After WWI: people in Europe looked to strong authoritarian
dictators
to bring order
Harsh requirements on Germany from Treaty of Versailles and Great Depression made it easy for Hitler to come to power
Fascism Rises: Unchecked
fascist
aggression of Italy, Germany, and Japan
League of Nations:
had no army and couldn’t stop Mussolini, Hitler, or Hirohito from taking over other nations
Timeline of Major Events that Caused WWII
1931: Japan took over Manchuria, China
1932: Japan took over Shanghai, China
1935: Italy invaded Ethiopia
1936: Italy and Germany formed an alliance, the League of Nations did nothing
1937: Japanese “Rape of Nanking” (China)
1938: England and France’s
appeasement
of Germany’s invasion of Sudetenland
1939: Germans invaded Poland from the west, Soviets invaded Poland from the east; England and France declared war on Germany = became
Allied Powers
1940: Japan, Germany, and Italy become allies =
Axis Powers
1941: Germany targeted U.S. ships in Atlantic and Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii = U.S. declared war on Axis Powers
Japan and U.S. rivalry went back to Age of Imperialism
Allied Powers and U.S. cut off Japan from investments and oil after the invasion of China in 1931 and 1932
Japanese

Prime Minister Hideki Tojo decided to take over strategic islands in Pacific: Philippines (U.S. territory) and Indonesia
Attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7th, 1941
U.S. lost three battleships, hundre
ds of planes, and thousands of people at Pearl Harbor
declared war on Axis Powers the next day
U.S. Involvement in WWII
September 1, 1939: Nazis invade Poland
Blitzkrieg
: "lighting war" = Poland conquered with airpower and tanks
Soviets and Nazis divided Poland, Soviets invaded Finland by 1940 (timber resources)
Winter 1939-1940: Nazis invaded Denmark and Norway (German-French border too fortified alond the Manginot Line)
Belgium collapsed
Nazis invaded France in summer 1940
European Theater Through 1942
The Holocaust
1933-1945: 11 million people murdered by Nazis; 5 million “undesirables” and 6 million Jews
Concentration camps
: labor or death camps
Used as slave labor or subjects in medical experiments
Final Solution
: Attempt to exterminate all Jews
Pacific Theater
Japan’s empire stretched over 2.8 million miles of the Pacific
6 months to stop the Japanese from spreading in the Pacific and 2 years to push them back toward Japan
U.S. strategy: Island Hopping to Japan
Battle of Midway
: Turning point of war in Pacific (added major base)
Japan used
kamikaze
tactics: suicide bombing as they got more desperate
POWs
: Death rate for U.S. prisoners of war was 40%
Philippines (U.S. territory)-
Bataan Death March
: 63 mile march, 18,000 of 70,000 died
Cultural Changes During WWII
Cultural changes: entertainment and fashion ndustries responded to supply shortages
News and propaganda promoted rationing
:
Fabric, food, gas, and rubber rationed
encouraged people to grow
Victory Gardens
Radio and movies revolved around war drama or news
95% of professional baseball players joined the war
Changes in U.S. Economy During WWII
War industry: made money and created jobs = ended the Great Depression
Power and scope of the federal government increased permanently
economy was tied to military production
government used resources to turn the nation into an “
arsenal
for democracy”
War Production Board:
government organization that converted industry to
war production
war bonds:
helped raise money for war
Advances for Women and African Americans
Women and African Americans entered the workforce in massive numbers to replace men in industry
Example: Rosie the Riveter
Laid groundwork for modern Women’s Rights Movement and Civil Rights Movement later on
African Americans also broke segregation in military; served with distinction in all ranks of all branches
Tuskegee Airmen
Brigadier General Benjamin Davis
Japanese Internment Camps
Executive Order 9066
imprisoned 120,000 Americans of Japanese descent along the west coast
Led to
Japanese Internment
: Huge violation of civil rights of Japanese Americans
"Internees" relocated to 10 internment camps in 7 states, who lost $4 billion in property and income
30,000 Japanese Americans volunteered to fight, in spite of this racist and unfair executive order
Supreme Court decision ended 9066 in 1945:
Endo v United States
ruled that under the 5th Amendment, no government body can deny a citizen their right to due process of law (habeas corpus)
End of War in Europe: U.S Involvement to V-E Day
Allied Invasion of Nazi Europe
Operation Torch
: Liberated French colonies in North Africa in 1942, then invaded Italy
Operation Overlord
: Planned invasion of Nazi Europe from France
Combined Allied invasion of 2 million men from many Allied countries with thousands of ships and airplanes
D-Day: Normandy, France landings on June 6th, 1944
Battle of the Bulge
D-Day costly in lives, but successful: by August, the Allies liberated Paris
Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes Offensive):
Allies reached the Rhine River on their way toward Germany in December 1944 and were surprised by a Nazi counterattack in the Ardennes Forest of France
named for the "bulge" it created in the front line
U.S. turned the tide of this battle, but it was their most costly at 100,000 casualties
Invasion
of Germany and V-E Day
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
March, 1945: Conquered
Iwo Jima

1/3 of all U.S. casualties in the entire war were at Iwo Jima
American bombers targeted Japanese ports and cities
1 million people homeless and 100,000 dead, but Japan refused to surrender
Okinawa
: Japanese soldiers and civilians fought to defend for 3 months
kamikaze
attacks peak
50,000 U.S. casualties
200,000 Japanese casualties
Still refused to surrender
Decision to Drop the Bomb
After FDR died on April 12, 1945, new President Truman had just learned of the
atomic bomb
Manhattan Project:
scientists

had successfully developed and exploded a nuclear
atomic bomb
Reasons to use it on Japan:
The war was getting costly in dollars and lives
Japan refused to surrender
Revenge for Pearl Harbor
Send a warning message to Stalin and the Soviets, who were taking over east Europe
Truman didn’t debate long: “When you have to deal with a beast, you have to treat him as a beast.”
Lesson 1: The Allies Divide at the End of WWII
What did the Allies agree about at the end of WWII?
Future peace: throughout the war, FDR (U.S.), Churchill (Britain), Stalin (Soviet), and other Allied leaders met to discuss peace and how to prevent future war (again):
Atlantic Charter
: Agreement to carefully restore post-war world peace, which led to creation of the United Nations
No taking over other parts of the world without the permission of people who live there
restore governments to the people
freedom of the seas
Punishing war criminals -- the
Nuremburg Trials
, 1945-1949: 21 Nazis imprisoned or executed for major war crimes
first international court system
led to establishment of the Geneva Convention on Laws and Customs of War
Roots of the Cold War
Yalta Conference

and

The Big Three
: FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss the future of Europe in 1945
Divide Germany into occupied zones
Stalin haggled over the Soviet’s sphere of influence, which included annexing half of Poland
Potsdam Conference:
made plans to remake Germany, but the tensions there showed the Allies divided when the U.S. revealed they had an atomic bomb
Soviets start to develop their own atomic bomb: the Cold War was just around the corner
Countries Under Axis Control, 1942
Italian Empire Expansion by 1939
WWII Ration Card
Operation Torch:
Operation Overlord, 1944: D-Day
Bataan Death March
Midway
Okinawa
Iwo Jima
The Big Three
Alamagordo, NM: First Succesful A-Bomb Test
"Jumbo:" First successful A-Bomb
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Truman wrote
Potsdam Declaration
on July 26th: surrender or face "prompt and utter destruction," but no surrender
August 6th, 1945: U.S. bomber plane called the Enola Gay dropped "Little Boy" on
Hiroshima
In minutes, 2/3 of city destroyed and 80,000 killed
no surrender
3 days later, dropped "Fat Man" on
Nagasaki
1/3 of city destroyed, 40,000 dead
August 14th:
V-J Day
, war was over
Battles for Britain and Soviet Russia
Summer 1940: Battle of Britain ("London Blitz")
Nazis bombed British air bases, shipyards, factories, homes = many killed
British Royal Airforce (RAF) defense stopped invasion by October
June 1941: Hitler betrayed Stalin - invaded Russia for "living space" (resources)
Soviets responded with "scorched earth" policy: burned their own cities, crops, and power plants
Siege of Stalingrad, 1942-1943: battle for Russia's gateway to best resources (oil, fertile lands, water power plants)
Mistake: Hitler divided his army to attack Soviets in their land, who have NEVER lost
Turning Point: Nazis defeated by February 1943 with 800,000 casualties
Full transcript