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Jo Shipp

on 20 May 2014

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Cake making methods – creaming (sponge cake), all-in-one (fairy cakes) whisking (swiss roll), melting (flap jacks), rubbing-in-method (scones).
Sauces – roux (fat+flour), bechemel (add milk), mornay (add cheese), tomato based sauces (pasta)
Bread making - kneading, proving, yeast (carbon dioxide), knocking back, shaping, baking, rich doughs (Chelsea buns)
Pastry types - how do you make shortcrust pastry (sweet = egg and sugar / savoury = water and salt) (rubbing-in-method), puff (savoury plait), filo (samosas), choux (eclairs)
Cooking techniques - meat, fish, poultry (grilling, saute, roast, stewing, poaching, baking, BBQ).
Heat Transfer – conduction (frying pan), convection (oven, boiling liquid), radiation (BBQ/grill)
Unit 4: Techniques (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).
HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point – Space program – all about controlling hazards and eliminating risk of food poisoning at all stages of making by putting specific controls in place from purchase of food right through to serving of food.
Step – e.g. purchase
Hazard – e.g. out of date food / not stored correctly
Action – e.g. check date marks / check storage temperatures / good supplier
Section 3: Food Safety (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams) consider the following:
Small = knives, boards, food processors etc.
Large = Ovens, Fryers, Bain Maries, Fridges, Freezers, Dishwashers, Grills
Food service = trolley, coffee machines, waiting station, crockery, cutlery, tablecloths, napkins
Section 7: Equipment (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).
Section 6: Costing and Portion Control (this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Buying tips
Portion control is closely linked with the buying of food. Only with a sound knowledge of the food bought is it possible to work out exactly how many portions can be obtained from it.  Buying tips to consider when buying food that will assist portion control include:
Keep an up-to-date list of all fresh and dry goods required by the kitchen and their prices. Check prices continually to ensure you buy at the best price.
Be aware of different types and qualities of each item.
Be aware of the availability of part-prepared and ready-prepared fresh items, eg filleted fish and boned joints of meat. They may be more expensive, pound-for-pound, but you will save on labour costs.
Be aware of the right time to buy at the best price, which, for fresh goods, is when the item is at the height of its season. This will ensure goods are bought at the required quality for the best price, and will also ensure an economic yield.  But, be aware, that the cheapest item may prove to be the most expensive if there is excessive waste.
If possible order by number and weight to ensure efficient portion control.  For example, instead of ordering 2kg of sirloin steak, you could order 10 x  200g trimmed sirloin steak. Whereas, if you just order 2kg of sirloin steak, it may come in various sizes, making portion control difficult.
To help with the buying of the correct quantities, compile a purchasing chart of 10, 50 or 100 covers – depending on the size of the restaurant – from which items can be easily divided or multiplied according to requirements.
Consider buying pre-portioned items, such as individual butter packs and cartons of milk
Portion control equipment
Certain items of equipment are necessary in maintaining good portion control.  For instance, scoops should be used for mashed potato and ice-cream, ladles for soup and sauces, and specific sized dishes for soup and desserts.
Section 6: Costing and Portion Control (this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Portion Control
Essential if you are to stick to your profit margins. Sound portion control can save a restaurant hundreds, or even thousands of pounds every year. For example, an extra 1p worth of meat served on each plate could mean a loss of £100 over the year when 100 meals are served daily. The amount of food allowed per portion depends upon the following criteria:
The type of customer or establishment
There will be a difference in the size of portions served in a café, where the customers are largely manual workers, and in a restaurant situated amongst shops and frequented by ladies-who-lunch.
There is also likely to be a difference in portion size of, for instance, beef being served as part of a three-course menu for £20, and when the beef dish alone costs £20 on an à la carte menu.
The quality of the food
Better quality food usually yields a greater number of portions than poor quality food. For example, low quality stewing beef is likely to require so much trimming that it may be difficult to get six portions to the kilo. The time and labour involved on preparing the meat also loses money.
Good quality stewing beef, however, may give eight portions to the kilo.  Much less time and labour is required in the preparation of the higher quality meat. 
Also consider the use of organic produce.  An organic chicken breast can cost the same as a whole standard chicken.  It is therefore essential you know your target market and whether they would rather pay £12 for an organic chicken breast salad or £12 for half a roast chicken, chips and salad.
The buying price of the food 
A clever buyer will ensure that the price paid for the food corresponds to its quality. A good price should mean good quality, which in turn should mean a good yield, which will help ensure the establishment of good portion control. 
However, if an inefficient buyer pays a high price for low quality food then it will be difficult to achieve a good number of portions.
Material (ingredients, drinks, flowers, cleaning)
Labour (biggest)
Overheads fuel (gas, electric)
Fixed – salaries, annual rent, energy
Variable – wages, food/drink, tax
VAT – value added tax – 20%
Cost of dishes = weight per gram etc. to identify actual cost per weight/quantity
Costing menus = 40% + overheads 60% = selling price (PROFIT!).
Controlling costs – portion control (weighing, measuring, equipment size), stock control, careful purchasing, budgeting,
Net Profit – after tax / costs
Gross Profit – before tax / costs
Break even – where costs and income total each other.
Section 6: Costing and Portion Control (this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Minerals - small - plants and animal foods – sodium (salt) blood)), calcium (bones/teeth (osteoporosis/rickets)), iron (blood (anemia))- uses in the diet!
Vitamins - small - plants and animal foods – A (sight), B (energy, nervous system), C (immunity/skin/cartilage), D (sun/bones), E, K. Fat soluble (ADEK) Water Soluble (BC)
Special Dietary Requirements – diabetes, lactose intolerance, vegetarians, vegans, allergies
Section 5: Nutrition (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).
WHO - age, gender, dietary requirements, religious views, moral (vegetarian), culture etc.
WHAT - nutritional content, meal, course, ingredients, commodities, equipment, staff are available, type of menu (a la carte / Tale D’hote / themed)
WHERE - inside, outside, type of premises, resources available
WHY - special occasions, been asked to, redesigning menu (seasons), change of resources/commodities available
WHEN - time of the year, seasonal, special occasions
HOW - staff, training, facilities, skills, techniques involved, money available, time available.
Section 5: Make/resign/create/adapt a menu (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams) always answer considering the following:
Health and Safety – i.e. common health and safety signs, fire precautions, safe use of equipment (safe lifting/carrying of heavy objects).
Health and Safety at Work Act. – to ensure employees and employers are protected, provide training, ensure equipment is safe, ensure regular monitoring takes place.
COSHH – control of substances hazardous to health
First Aid – how to treat Cuts, Burns/Scalds, shock.
Health and Safety Executive five-point plan - identify hazards; identify who is at risk, evaluate level of risk; put procedures in place to eliminate/reduce risk; monitor/review.
Fire Regulations – rules, dos and don’ts! Air/Heat/Fuel = fire triangle!
Risk Assessment – HSE five point plan – identifying and preventing potential accidents: identify/plan/prevent
Section 3: Health and Safety (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).

An airline meal or in-flight meal is a meal served to passengers on board a commercial airliner. These meals are prepared by airline catering services.
The first kitchens preparing meals in-flight were established by United Airlines in 1936.
These meals vary widely in quality and quantity across different airline companies and classes of travel. They range from a simple beverage in short-haul economy class to a seven-course gourmet meal in long-haul first class.
The type of food varies depending upon the airline company and class of travel. Meals may be served on one tray or in multiple courses with no tray and with a tablecloth, metal cutlery, and glassware (generally in first and business classes).
The airline dinner typically includes meat (most commonly chicken or beef) or fish, a salad or vegetable, a small bread roll, and a dessert.
Caterers usually produce alternative meals for passengers with restrictive diets. These must usually be ordered in advance, sometimes when buying the ticket. Some of the more common examples include:
Cultural diets, such as French, Italian, Chinese, Japanese or Indian style.
Infant and baby meals. Some airlines also offer children's meals, containing foods that children will enjoy such as baked beans, mini-hamburgers and hot dogs.
Medical diets, including low/high fiber, low fat/cholesterol, diabetic, peanut free, non-lactose, low salt/sodium, low-purine, low-calorie, low-protein, bland (non-spicy) and gluten-free meals.
Religious diets, including kosher, halal, and Hindu, Buddhist and Jain vegetarian (sometimes termed Asian vegetarian) meals.
Vegetarian and vegan meals. Some airlines do not offer a specific meal for vegetarians; instead, they are given a vegan meal.
Meals must generally be frozen and heated on the ground before takeoff, rather than prepared fresh.
Food safety is paramount in the airline catering industry. A case of mass food poisoning amongst the passengers on an airliner could have disastrous consequences. For example, on February 20, 1992, shrimp tainted with cholera was served on Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 386. An elderly passenger died and other passengers fell ill. For this reason catering firms and airlines have worked together to provide a set of industry guidelines specific to the needs of airline catering. The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering Revision 3 is offered free of charge by the International Flight Service Association.
The meals supplied on some airlines are labeled with the position of the crew member for whom they are intended, and no technical crew member eats any of the same products as his or her colleague. This ensures that each pilot eats a different meal to minimize the risk of all pilots on board being ill.
Section 1: Types of Service: Inflight Catering
The importance of sound communication.
Types of communication used, e.g. verbal, written, telephones, fax,ICT (e-mail, Internet).
Which type of communication is appropriate to the circumstance.
The need for accurate, appropriate record keeping.
Different methods of record keeping used in – stock control, data logging and restaurant bookings.
Section 8: Communication and record keeping
(this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Section 7: Equipment
A large shallow
container of hot
water that gastronorm
containers sit in
It keeps food hot at the correct temperature during service (63oC) without burning it or drying it out
Bain Marie
Section 7: Equipment
Cooks food very quickly
Oil retains flavours such as fish
Safety issues of hot fat
Cleaning issues
Deep fat fryer
Section 7: Equipment
Is very expensive to buy
Makes good chefs food better!
Cooks food quicker than in conventional ovens and uses less fuel
A combi oven (combination oven) steams food as well
Comes in different sizes
Convection oven
Section 6: Costing and
Portion Control
Guideline portion amounts
Plaice, cod, haddock fillet 8 portions per kg
Cod and haddock on the bone 6 portions per kg Plaice, turbot, brill on the bone 4 portions per kg
Salmon (gutted, but including head and bone) 6 portions per kg
Crab or lobster meat 250-360g per portion
Boneless roast beef 6-8portions per kg
Stewing beef 8-10 portions per kg
Leg of lamb 6-8 portions per kg
Stewing lamb 4-6 portions per kg
Leg of pork 8 portions per kg
Duck and chicken 360g per portion
New potatoes 8 portions per kg
Old potatoes 4-6 portions per kg
Cabbage 6-8 portions per kg
French beans 6-8 portions per kg
Peas 4-6 portions per kg
Spinach 4 portions per kg
Eatwell plate and food groups - know what is in each group.
Carbohydrates - plant foods (starchy (slow energy) or sugary (fast energy)), NSP = FIBRE (brown flour, rice, grains etc.).
Protein – amino acids - animal protein High BV, plant protein Low BV– for growth and repair of cells.
Fats - plants (unsaturated = healthy fats (liquid fat = oils)) animals (saturated = not so healthy (solid fat)), Oily Fish = OMEGA 3 & 6 OILS = VERY VERY GOOD FOR YOU!
Section 5: Nutrition (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).
Fruit - varieties, seasonal, soft, orchard, stone, dry, tropical, berries
Vegetables - salad, root, leaf, beans
Tubers, pulses – sweet potatoes, potatoes, lentils
Vegetarian alternatives - Quorn, soya, tofu, vegetable protein
…and all the products that we make from these ingredients and how i.e. wheat -> flour -> biscuits
Unit 4: FOOD COMMODITIES/INGREDIENTS CONT. (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams):
clean and clear as you go – between every change of activity
avoid cross contamination
colour coded equipment – knives, boards
personal hygiene – hands, hair, sickness, clothing, plasters
date checks – use by / best before
first in first out etc.
Section 3: Food Safety (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams) consider the following:
Temperature Controls - frozen below -18oC, chilled temperature 0 - 5oC, hot holding >63oC, Core Temperature 75oC or over to KILL bacteria and some viruses.
Time controls – cook food for long enough to kill bacteria.
Pathogenic bacteria – food poisoning bacteria - need warmth, moisture, time and food – without one of these they cannot survive! E Coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter (animals), Bacillus Cereus (rice). Cold temperatures DO NOT kill bacteria.
Bacteria – requirements for growth = food, warmth, moisture, time.
Section 3: Food Safety (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams) consider the following:
Read through this whole presentation before the exam.
Each section is an overview of what you should know but should continue to revise in more detail
You should have a clear understanding of ALL of this stuff over the next few slides before your written exam – as a bare minimum
Important ‘stuff’ that you should ALL know for catering…
Conservation of energy and water, when preparing food.
Why it is important for the industry to address these areas e.g. sustainability.
A range of disposable products and materials used for packaging and
Glass, metal, paper/card, plastics
assess their fitness for purpose – appeal, temperature control,
recycling, biodegradable, hygiene, cost, ease of storage and handling.
6 Rs
Section 9: Environment (this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Section 7: Equipment
With the use of a strong fan – (it is noisy) – it reduces the temperature of food to below 5°C very quickly
Food can be prepared beforehand so fewer chefs are needed at one time
Blast chiller
Unit 4: Food Preparation and Terminolgy
- brûlée
- mise en place
- bouquet garni
- purée
- coulis
- reduce
- croûtons
- roux
- en croûte
- sauté
- accompaniments
- flambé
- al dente
- garnish
- au gratin
- julienne
- bain-marie
- marinade
Learn This Terminology
Pasta, rice, cereals / grains – grains - oats, rice, wheat, flour, bread, biscuits – cheap / safe (DRY).
Convenience foods - wet preserved foods, dry products, frozen products, Cook and Chill products
Dairy – milk, cream (single/double etc.), butter, yoghurt, ice-cream, cheese (pasteurised/unpasteurised)
Meat – pork (bacon), beef (veal), lamb (mutton), game (wild animals)
Section 4: FOOD COMMODITIES/INGREDIENTS (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams):
Food safety - should occur at all stages - Storage, preparation, cooking, cleaning

Risk Assessment – What is the risk, who is at risk (staff/customers), how are they at risk (use of dangerous equipment / food allergies), what can be done to control risk (training / avoiding allergens / menu advice)?
Section 3: Food Safety (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams) consider the following:
Section 7: Equipment
Most of the equipment used is washed in an electric dishwasher
This is more hygienic than hand washing as a higher temperature can be used – 83°C
An in and out dishwasher can be used or a conveyor dishwasher for very large quantities
Section 7: Equipment
Slices, grates, shreds, chips and chops up to 150kg of fruit, vegetables or cheese an hour
Robo Coupe - Food processor
Section 7: Equipment
Cooks large quantities of food at a time
Is used for frying, poaching, stewing, boiling and braising - it is versatile
Food and liquid is easily poured into smaller containers ready for service
Its wide shallow pan cooks large quantities evenly
Bratt pan
Poultry – farmed birds for meat i.e. chicken, turkey, duck
Fish – oily (salmon/tuna), white (round - cod/haddock, flat plaice/sole), shellfish (mussels, clams, prawns) – can go off quickly! Smell of the sea, clear eyes, gills, closed shells (High Risk).
Eggs – chicken, duck, quail – uses (cakes/sauces/glazes/coating etc.)
Section 4: FOOD COMMODITIES/INGREDIENTS (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams):
Section 1: Types of Service: In-flight catering
Section 7: Equipment
Some double grills are double griddles such as this panini grill.
Double grills cook both sides at the same time – but with heat loss.
Griddles cook one side at a time. The food is touching the heat source.
Griddle and Double Grill
Where can these people work?
What do these people do?
Front of house
Assistant Manager
Restaurant manager
Restaurant / waiting staff
Bar Staff
Back of house
Head chef
Sous chef
Vegetable chef
Sauce chef
Pastry chef
Commis Chef
Kitchen porter
Section 2: Job Roles (this type of question ALWAYS comes up in catering exams).
Section 7: Equipment Knives
Different food – different establishments – different prices – different dishes
Fine Dining
Gastro pub / Bistro
Fast Food
Take away
Section 1: The Industry - Food and Drink
Waiting Service / Plated
Take Away
Self - service
Section 1: Types of Service
Section 1: The Industry - Food and Drink – Establishments – residential and non-residential
Section 1: The Industry - Food and Drink – Establishments – commercial and non commercial
Easy to recycle
Can be shaped
Can be difficult to transport and store
Not good at extreme temperatures
Section 7: Equipment
They come in different sizes – often standing on the floor
A dough hook to make bread
A paddle to make cakes and biscuits
Have different attachments:
A whisk for eggs and cream
Section 7: Equipment Ovens
Can be hot and not show it
flames = hot!
Expensive to buy
Cooks twice as fast as electric
Uses half the energy as electric or gas
or Electric?
or induction?
Ordinary electric
Contract Catering = ‘outsourced’ catering firms which are ‘contracted in’ to prepare food either in the workplace or for an event.
‘Hospitality Catering’ = usually provided from within an organisation.
Section 1: The Industry - Food and Drink – Contract or Hospitality
Section 9: Environment (this type of question can come up in catering exams).
Easy to recycle and reuse.
Light and strong
Brick Carton/ Tetra Packs
Plastic, paper and aluminium
Difficult to recycle
Made up of several layers.
Light and air-tight
Metals- (Mostly Aluminium)
Uses a lot of energy in the production
Contains a lot of raw materials in the production
Can be recycled
Makes up ton 10% of your rubbish
Disintegrates and erodes slowly.
Light and cheap
Contaminated Landfills
Full transcript