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Europe After World War

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 25 November 2017

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Transcript of Europe After World War

Europe After World War 1
The First World War
Examine International Relations in the 20th Century.
Learning Intention
It was caused by intense rivalry which developed between European powers in the early 1900's.
Countries competed with each other for trade and influence overseas.
Military tensions between Germany and Austria- Hungary on the one hand and Britain, France and Russia on the other hand led to the two armed camps in Europe.
On 28 June 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot dead in Sarajevo this was the spark which started the Great War.
The two sides were the Allies and the Central Powers.
World War 1 - Cause
In January 1919 the victorious leaders met in Paris to draw up a peace settlement.
They wanted to prevent a war happening again and some leaders sought revenge on the countries that lost the war.
The peace talks were dominated by three men ( The Big Three) President Woodrow Wilson of America, David Lloyd George of Britain, and George Clemenceau Prime Minister of France.
President Wilson wanted a fair peace not based on revenge and put forward a 14 point peace plan.

Nations should keep a small army for defence only.
Countries should avoid making secret treaties with each other.
People of one race and language should be free to set up their own governments. This is called self-determination.
A League of Nations should be established, which would aim to keep the world at peace.
President Wilson's 14 point peace plan
Prior Knowledge
What do you already know about WW1?
The Allies = Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the U.S.
Central Powers = Germany Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey
By 1914 a stalemate existed between the two sides, despite heavy causalities the war continued for 4 more years.
The arrival of American troops in 1918 was a major turning point in the war and on 11 November 1918 a defeated Germany signed an armstice.
The Treaty of Versailles
At last on 28 June five years after the Sarajevo assassinations a treaty between Germany and the victorious powers was signed.
Its leaders had to sign a 'war guilt' admitting responsibility for starting the war.
Germany had to pay reparations. Pay for the costs of the war.
The provinces of Alsace Lorraine were returned to France.
Germany lost a stretch of land in the east to allow the recreated state of Poland to have a coastline. They also lost some land to Denmark and Belgium.
The German army was reduced to 100,000 soldiers. The Rhineland an area between Germany France and Belgium became a demilitarised zone.
Do you think the Treaty of Versailles was fair?
A Weak Treaty
The Treaty had many faults.
The defeated countries were not allowed to attend the talks - later allowing Hitler to use the dictated peace to rise to power.
Russia was not invited to the talks even though it had fought on the Allied side.
The Germans greatly resented the 'war guilt' clause in the Treaty.
Many newly created countries such as Poland contained people of different races, religion and language leading to tensions between their citizens.
Italians did not receive what they felt they were owed. Leading to a feeling of being cheated by the treaty.
The League of Nations
The Treaty of Versailles had included among its terms the setting up of a League of Nations.
The Americans refused to join the League.
President Wilson's hopes were dashed.
At first only the victorious powers were allowed to join the League.
As a result, those powers left outside the League felt under no obligation to accept its rulings.
It ultimately failed as it did not prevent the outbreak of World War 2 in 1939.
Dictatorship or Democracy
WW1 brought an end to four large empires that had exercised much control in Europe.
The Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish (Ottoman) Empires all collapsed as a result of the war.
In the absence of the old empires two very different political systems existed in Europe in the aftermath of WW1. Dictatorship and Democracy.
Democracy - people are free to choose their own government.
Dictatorship - the country is led by a single ruler or party.
During the years 1919-1939 some European countries turned away from democracy, allowing brutal dictatorships to take hold.
Communist/Socialist Dictatorships
Communism or socialism is a system of government which believes that the wealth of a country should be in the hands of the government for the good of all its people.
The State, rather than private owners control the and and industry.
The first communist government was established in Russia in 1917.The royal family were overthrown and Lenin came to power.
However, following the death of Lenin in 1924, a new more extreme communist leadership emerged under Josef Stalin.
By 1927 he taken full control of the Soviet Union.
Until his death in 1953 he ruled the Soviet Union with an iron fist.
Russians lived in fear of the secret police and being sent to the gulags, prison camps.
His brutal regime increased industry but sent a wave of fear across Europe.
Fascists believed in a strong government headed by a dictator.
Fascism encouraged national pride and the ordinary person to put the interests of the state before their own personal freedom.
Fascists believed in private business ownership of land and industries.
Some fascist leaders were racist and superior.
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