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Transcript of Pronouns
and Liv Mothershead Compound Possession with Pronouns When two or more nouns possess something together
they count as one compound unit
the verb is singular Pronouns Vague Pronouns Avoiding Ambiguity Too many pronouns can obscure your meaning. Placement in a sentence Indefinite Pronouns “I know he is brave" = “I know that he is brave"
complex sentence structure
“he” is another subject, another clause
“I know him to be brave" Not “I know that him to be brave."
Still only one clause.
Objects of prepositions not subjects of prepositions.
use objective case Pronoun Agreement the noun that comes before the pronoun
Always introduce antecedent before pronoun Object
(Objective Case) Possessive
(Genitive/Possessive Case) I
he, she, it
him, her, it
his, hers, its
theirs Put yourself at then end
e.g. Mike, Sue, and I A Matter of Manners,
not Grammar: Lists Embedded Sentences Lists Avoiding Confusion A pronoun should always refer to the closest noun When a pronoun in a list is not referring to the speaker, then it should come first.
e.g. He, Max and I are going to the store. Antecedent Note: Avoid using the same pronoun for more than one noun. e.g. The cat sat down on the chair. It was so fluffy that Mark couldn't find the cat on it. Then Mark picked it up. De-mystifying "Whom" e.g. Sarah's and my film is thrilling.
Sarah and I both possess this film
the verb is singular Object:
Whom do you love?
Whomever you love...
Who loves you?
Whoever loves you... Reflexive
(Reflexive Case) Quiz time! Activity time! myself
himself, herself, itself
themselves If following a preposition (e.g. Between, At, Above, Over, and Including), pronouns must be in the objective case.
Between you and me Example: Preposition/Pronoun Agreement Reflexive Pronoun A reflexive pronoun is used when the speaker is both the subject and the object of the sentence... Example: I see myself
I is the subject
Myself is the object Prim and Proper If a pronoun follows a linking verb (e.g. Is, Was, Were, Appear, and Seem), the subject case must be used. Examples: It is I
You and I are going to the store Subject
(Nominative Case) Use "Who" when referring to the subject of a clause.
Use "Whom" when referring to the object of a clause. "Whom" do you love? "Who" loves you? Some pronouns are more vague than others. The Vague Pronouns which, it, this, that, and who these words must refer to a single noun rather than a phrase Ex: I woke up late this morning. This made me grumpy.
But what does "this" refer to?
"I woke up late this morning. This lack of sleep made me grumpy. Possessive Pronoun Possessive Adjective That backpack is mine, That one is hers. That is my backpack. That is her backpack Explanation Pronouns replace entire noun phrases
"hers" replaces "her backpack"
the "s" on the end of the pronoun differentiates it from the possessive adjective Continued... which you can only use when one thing is inside the other:
(Ex: The box in which I keep my jewelry fell apart.) it, this, and that you can replace these pronouns with more clear nouns most of the time. If you do use them, make sure they refer to only one thing, not an entire situation or a group of things. who you use "who" to refer to people, not "which." Some More Examples We are not paid well and receive inadequate benefits, but I don't think we should discuss that yet. She is not a person which I would talk to on a regular basis. This is a company who makes jellybeans. How would you fix the following sentences? Singular Plural Either another
such General Points to Remember: Pronouns should refer to something specific. "Human Subjects" are better than vague pronouns. Using Pronouns Clearly in Your Writing Use human subjects Some pronouns refer to people, others do not. In general, your
writing will be more clear if you use human subjects.
The first sentence below has less human subjects. Can you tell? In the mornings it was sometimes our routine to go on long hikes into the woods, and at night there were usually Scrabble games or record-playing or reading in front of his big stone fireplace.
In the mornings we sometimes went out on long hikes into the woods, and at night we played Scrabble or listed to records or say readings in front of his big stone fireplace. The first sentence above is vague because "this" doesn't have a
clear antecedent. One Final Note! Despite what some grammar books
may tell you... You can use "they" and "their" as a singular pronouns in place of "he/she," "his/her" or other awkward variations. Ex: One of the students failed their exam.