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Intro to Carbohydrates

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by

LIZ MOEHR

on 17 April 2016

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Transcript of Intro to Carbohydrates

What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are molecules composed of:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide a source of unable chemical energy for cells
Why Carbohydrates are Important to the Human Body
They give the body energy, typically from the glycogen
Provide fuel for the Central Nervous System and the Muscular System
Glycogen
Main way the body stores glucose for later use.
It is a large molecule produced in the liver, but also stored in the muscle and fat cells.
After carbohydrates are ingested, more glycogen will be produced & released
The muscles use the glycogen present in the muscle cells and in the blood stream
The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Examples of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in food are grouped into 3 categories:
SUGAR
STARCHES
FIBER
How are Carbohydrates structured?
Simplest carbohydrate: Sugar
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:
Study of compounds containing CARBON
In organic chemistry: SUGAR = SACCHARIDE
Monosaccharides:
Sugar containing one basic molecule
to form more complex carbohydrates
Ex. Fructose, glucose, galactose
Disaccharides:
Two joined monosaccharides
Ex. Sucrose, maltose, lactose
In humans, it breaks down into very simple carbohydrates (mainly into glucose and fructose via digestive tract) then it is absorbed into blood stream to cells.
It provides fuel for the body to do its job as the body's main energy source and helps the body maintain energy.
If we want to run or walk- all of those activities are used by carbohydrates.
How are Carbohydrates used?
Why Carbohydrates are harmful to the Human Body
Carbohydrates are necessary, but too much of one thing can work against you.
Processed food
such as chips, white pasta, cakes, white bread and various kinds of soft drinks are full of
carbohydrates with little nutritional value.
When these foods are processed through different stages of digestion,
nutrition value diminishes
.
The leftover calories that are useless and can cause
weight gain
Simple and Complex Carbohydrates
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
Simple carbohydrates are quick energy sources, but they do not usually supply any other nutrients or fiber
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
Complex carbohydrates often supply energy and other nutrients and fiber that the body needs.
Overall complex carbs are a better choice.
Starch - bread, cereal, potatoes, pasta, rice, and legumes (dried peas and beans)

Fiber - bran, whole-grain foods, raw vegetables and fruit (especially the seeds and skins), legumes, nuts, seeds and popcorn
Sugar - fruit, fruit juice, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, and other sweets
Structure of Carbohydrates
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOHYDRATES SPECIAL
Extra Side of Saccharides

PART 1:
Work on the
"Sugar Saturation Search"
worksheet.
Record your group members' or other family/friends' favorite beverages.
Use the in-class resources (iPads, laptops, etc) and resources/labels at home to complete the worksheet.

PART 2:
Look at the ingredients lists found on food labels in our kitchen and your kitchen at home.
On the backside of your sugar worksheet,
record the sugars you find, as well as the product
they were contained in.

We will be exploring these sugars in greater detail in an upcoming class.
Carb Crunchers!
Review of Sugars:

Fructose
Glucose
Galactose
Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose
Check Your Labels
Full transcript