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The Digestive System

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Veronique Manga

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of The Digestive System

Surface Area : Volume Digestive Feedback Mechanisms -Gastrin: hormone that controls the secretion of enzymes and HCL (hydrochloric acid)

-When proteins are in the stomach, the ph of gastric contents increases, which stimulates gastrin and the release of HCL. As proteins are digested, the gastric contents become more acidic, which inhibit gastric secreting cells. This negative feedback mechanism helps maintain an optimal pH.

response set point response
(below) (above)

when ph -2 Gastrin when ph +2
gastrin is not gastrin production
released. slowed down by
hormone somatostatin Veronique Manga
Eboni Lee
Taylor Baker
Jayvelyn Cristoria Disease/ Disorder Result Eboni Lee
Veronique Manga
Taylor Baker The Digestive System The Digestive System Primary Functions Major Organs -Organs that make up the digestive tract are:
The mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, & anus.

-Lining within the the organs called Mucosa, that have tiny glands that make juices to help digest food.

The liver and pancreas produce digestive juices that reach the intestines through tubes. The gallbladder stores the livers juices until they are ready for the intestines. Start Problem
The more the Surface Area means more area for absorption however to digest is to break down the food with various enzymes and to absorb is assimilating the nutritional components of food into cells so the body can use it as energy. The amount of time the nutrients can be broken down and absorbed by the body to be used and the excess materials the body does not use will be excreted out of the body can be long and complicated process. -The digestive system is made up of a series of hollow organs joined in a long twisting tube from the mouth to the anus, that help the body break down and absorb food. Homeostasis Bibliography Gallbladder disease

Conditions that slow or obstruct the flow of bile out of the gallbladder result in gallbladder disease, such as:
-Gallstones (cholelithiasis)
-Inflammation of the gallbladder

Gallstones: hard peeble-like deposits that formed in gallbladder- made from high levels of cholesterol. These stones develop in the gall bladder as high concentrations of bile and cholesterol form painful stones that need to be passed.

Pain in the right upper or middle upper abdomen:
May be constant
May be sharp, cramping, or dull

Surgery: Most common technique is called laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Medication: Medicines called chenodeoxycholic acids (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid
(UDCA, ursodiol) may be given in pill form to dissolve cholesterol gallstones. eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5369269_symptoms-gallstones-kidney-stones.html#ixzz2L82Soufz



http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/about636.html Trends in Animal Evolution Function: digestion & absorption
extracellular compartments enables an animal to devour much larger pieces of food than can be ingested by phagocytosis; the enormous surface area of the small intestine is an evolutionary adaptation that greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption

Animal – like – Protist: Ingested food particles generally become surrounded by a membrane, forming a distinct food vacuole; digestion is entirely intracellular. The contents of the vacuoles can change, e.g., go from acidic to basic.

Cnidaria/ Platyhelminthes: ingest food and expel wastes through a single opening. Food is digested in a cavity through both extracellular and intracellular means.

Invertebrates: More-complex animals digest food in a tube called the digestive tract. Food enters the body through the mouth, and wastes leave through the anus.Specialization of the digestive tract allows food to be processed more efficiently, because each step in the process takes place in order, at a specific place along the digestive tract.

Vertebrates – Fish: In most modern-day bony fishes, in most ray-finned fishes there is a rectum instead of, the urinary and reproductive tubes, which do not join the digestive tube, have their own separate opening to the exterior.
Vertebrates – Reptiles and Amphibians: In most reptiles and birds, a pair of longitudinal folds in the roof of the oral cavity forms a passage from the internal nares to the pharynx. In amphibians air enters the external nares and then passes through the internal nares, which are evolutionarily newer openings, into the front of the oral cavity.

Vertebrates – Mammals: The evolution of the secondary palate allows for dual mastication and
breathing. During mammalian evolution, the tongue became more prominent in the process of
digestion, the tongue also became the primary focus of taste receptors. Adaptations
-The stomach is where the bolus is being digested by peristaltic muscular contractions breaking it down chemically and mechanically.
-The microvilli’s (the finger-like projections on the interior of the intestines) ability to absorb nutrients; the more surface area available, the more efficient the absorption will be.
-The tubular arrangement of the small intestine.
-The large intestine has mucosal folds responsible for absorption of minerals and water (proximal half) and storage.
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