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General behavior problems

Samantha Gomez Matthew Ehler Jazmin Jasso

Samantha Allie

on 28 September 2012

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Transcript of General behavior problems

Mr. Pendell Animal Behavior! Samantha Allie 7th period Jazmin Jasso Matthew Ehler There are many, many types of aggression. Some of them overlap, others are "mutually exclusive." Each dog has a combination of some of the traits. General Behavior Problems Aggression These are some of the types of aggression most commonly seen: Prey Drive: the desire to chase movement.
Territoriality: guarding -- the home, yard.
Natural Protection: guarding one's human.
Defense: (Not the classic "schutzhund" definition): guarding the dog's own body.
Dominance: the dog that decides when and what he will do is dominant, and this is linked in some breeds to aggression.
Redirected: a dog who is in one mode of aggression, say, guarding his yard, when another dog or person walks too close, will "re-direct" his aggression towards the interfering person/dog.
Object Aggression: this is toy-guarding, or food-guarding.
Same-Sex: sometimes two females or two males will vie for dominance in the household, or mate. Solving aggression in animals. 1). Make an appointment with your veterinarian for a checkup. Aggression can be caused by a medical problem which is affecting your pet’s behavior due to a chemical imbalance, irritability, fever or other causes. If this is the cause, your veterinarian can provide a treatment protocol to heal the medical condition and in the process lessen or eliminate the aggression in your pet.
2). See a professional animal trainer who has experience with resolving dog aggression issues. Different pet trainers will have different approaches. Ask the trainer about his philosophy of handling behavior issues and make sure that you are comfortable with his approach.
3). Keep your petaway from situations that are likely to provoke aggression. When dealing with dog/cat/horse aggression it is critical that you remember this important rule. NEVER, NEVER, NEVER, STRIKE OR PUNISH YOUR PET. http://www.wonderpuppy.net/canwehelp/behaveD.htm Solving that behavior. General Behavior Problems Fear http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/behavioral/c_dg_fears_phobia_anxiety#.UGP6waTyaMo Phobia General Behavior Problems Anixety General Behavior Problems Fear is the instinctual feeling of apprehension resulting from a situation, person, or object presenting an external threat -- whether real or perceived. The response of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for the freeze, fight, or flight syndrome.
It is considered to be a normal behavior, essential for adaptation and survival; its context determines whether the fear response is normal, or abnormal and inappropriate. What fear does: A phobia is a persistent and excessive fear of a specific stimulus, such as a thunderstorm. Your veterinarian will first want to rule out other conditions that might be causing the behavior, such as brain or thyroid disease. The behavior could also be originating from a response to a toxic substance, such as lead. Blood tests will rule out or confirm such a possibility.

If your veterinarian diagnoses a simple fear, anxiety, or phobia, a prescribed medication may be all that is needed. But your doctor will most likely make recommendations based on your individual dog, the fear trigger, and types of beavhioral techniques that can be used to alleviate your dog's fears and anxieties. Most abnormal reactions are learned and can be unlearned with gradual exposure. It has been suggested that once a phobic event has been experienced, any event associated with it, or the memory of it, is sufficient enough to generate a response. The most common phobias are associated with noises (such as thunderstorms or fireworks). http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/behavioral/c_dg_fears_phobia_anxiety#.UGP6waTyaMo http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/behavioral/c_dg_fears_phobia_anxiety#.UGP6waTyaMo Solving that behavior. Solving that behavior. Your veterinarian will first want to rule out other conditions that might be causing the behavior, such as brain or thyroid disease. The behavior could also be originating from a response to a toxic substance, such as lead. Blood tests will rule out or confirm such a possibility.

If your veterinarian diagnoses a simple fear, anxiety, or phobia, a prescribed medication may be all that is needed. But your doctor will most likely make recommendations based on your individual dog, the fear trigger, and types of beavhioral techniques that can be used to alleviate your dog's fears and anxieties. Your veterinarian will first want to rule out other conditions that might be causing the behavior, such as brain or thyroid disease. The behavior could also be originating from a response to a toxic substance, such as lead. Blood tests will rule out or confirm such a possibility.

If your veterinarian diagnoses a simple fear, anxiety, or phobia, a prescribed medication may be all that is needed. But your doctor will most likely make recommendations based on your individual dog, the fear trigger, and types of beavhioral techniques that can be used to alleviate your dog's fears and anxieties. Anxiety, meanwhile, is the anticipation of future dangers from unknown or imagined origins that result in normal body reactions. Most common visible behaviors are elimination (i.e., urination and/or passage of bowel movements), destruction, and excessive vocalization (i.e., barking, crying).
Anxieties: lesions secondary to anxious behavior (such as licking and biting at the self)
Separation anxiety: history of abandonment, multiple owners, rehoming, or prior neglect is common; exacerbating the condition may be that the dog has been often abandoned or rehomed because of separation anxiety Conflict General Behavior Problems Solving this behavior Dominance General Behavior Problems Solving this behavior Displacement General Behavior Problems Solving this behavior Frustration Solving this behavior Stereotypical (OCD) Solving this behavior General Behavior Problems General Behavior Problems Vacuum activity General Behavior Problems Behavior problem of horses Behavior problem of horses Wood chewing Solving this behavior Pawing Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Pica Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Kicking Solving this behavior Foal rejecting Behavior problem of horses Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Anorexia Solving this behavior Cribbing Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Self matilation Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Poor libido Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Coprophagia Behavior problem of horses A relationship between
individual animals that is established by
force/aggression and submission, to determine
who has priority access to multiple resources
such as food, preferred resting spots, and mates.
In most cases the dominance hierarchy is relatively stable from day to day. Direct conflict is rare; an animal usually steps aside when confronted by one of higher rank. Temporary shifts occur; for instance, a female baboon mated to a high-ranking male assumes a high rank for the duration of the pair bond. An individual weakened by injury, disease, or senility usually moves downward in rank

Solving this behavior Obesity Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Circling Behavior problem of horses Solving this behavior Behavior problem of cat Signs that your pet is frustrated is when he has compulsive behavior. Don't shout at your pet, because this may reinforce the behavior. Frustration occurs when a pet is frustrated at not being able to get to something, and he/she takes the frustration out in another way. An example of this is a dog who is tied in the yard and spends the day straining and trying to get to a dog that lives across the street. The dog will usually bark and growl as his frustration grows. When his owner comes to bring him in, the dog redirects his frustration and bites the owner, leading to aggression. The best way to deal with barrier frustration and redirected aggression is to prevent them. I. Go out with them. Play with pet. Keep your pet busy with reward-based training. Remember that old saying, “Idle hands are the devil’s workshop”? Same goes for idle pets. http://dogs.about.com/od/dogbehaviorproblems/a/causes-of-aggression-in-dogs.htm An animal may be motivated to perform two or more behaviors that are in conflict with each other (e.g. approach-withdrawal, greeting but fear of being punished). The inability to perform both of the strongly motivated behaviors can lead to conflict resulting in the performance of a displacement behavior This is usually a normal behavior shown at an inappropriate time, appearing out of context for the occasion. Grooming, yawning, circling, and vocalizations may be performed in stressful situations as displacement behaviors.
http://www.ehow.com/about_6629615_study-animal-behavior_.html Stereotypical behavior in pets has not been studied extensively, even though several different types of compulsive behavior occur in different species including dogs. A dog may recurrently chase lights or shadows, bite or lick its own flank, pace compulsively or chase its own tail. Different environmental and genetic factors have been suggested to predispose to compulsive behavior. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120820093614.htm Obsessive-compulsive disorders have the following necessary condition: repetitive, stereotypic motor, locomotory, grooming, ingestive, or hallucinogenic behaviors that occur out-of-context to their normal occurrence, or in a frequency or duration in excess of that required to accomplish the ostensible goal. Depending on which (OCD) your pet has
it is possible that there is already a solution to your pets odd OCD. For example if your pet has compulsive licking you could try keeping your pet more busy with pet toys and a little more attention. Most pets who have compulsive licking wear doglegs. Taking your dog to the local veterinarian is the first step to overcoming your pet's OCD. Avoid losing your temper by staying focused and having a plan when your dog tries one of these tricks. It will quickly recognize that you understand what it is saying and that you are prepared to meet the challenge. Displacement behavior can be very subtle and is often overlooked by trainers. If allowed to continue, displacement behavior will soon lead to defiance, and that may not be quite so easy to correct. Bolting, or running away, needs to be addressed quickly. Keep a leash on your dog if it shows any signs of bolting so you can control its actions and prevent the flight mechanism from being rewarded. If animal develops a bolting mentality, it is feeling far too much pressure. Vacuum cleaners make weird noises. Their use involves a person thrusting the thing around the room in gestures that wouldn't make any sense to a dog. The concept of cleaning a floor, other than by eating any food spilled on it, would also be foreign to a dog's way of thinking. There's not much about a vacuum cleaner for a dog to like! The occasional herding dog will chase it because it moves, and some dogs will "attack" or threaten it because it isn't acting right! Adding treats to vacuuming time can work through this fear. If the dog is really traumatized about the device, you may need to start with setting up the vacuum cleaner and giving the dog treats in the next room. Over several sessions you can move the treat-giving closer, never faster than the dog's comfort level can handle. Do the process with the vacuum off, next with the vacuum cleaner running, and finally with the vacuum cleaner moving. While going through this program, put the dog in a different place whenever you vacuum so as not to undo all the good conditioning by scaring the dog again. http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=A&A=1612 There are many different methods of resolving conflict. Interestingly enough, there are animals that relate to some of the methods. Behaviors are methods for resolving internal conflicts: a hungry dog, faced with a bowl of food and an aggressive canine owner of the food might express any of these three ways of resolving a conflict between approaching for food and fleeing the aggressive owner of the food.” Another example might be a dog which has been severely frightened. One of the ways of resolving this internal conflict in drives and motivation, in fact physiological and neurological demands, is familiar to most of us: approach-withdraw, or “flight or fight” as it is commonly, but incorrectly, called. Solving this behavior Treatment for conflict between pets involves providing a separate set of resources for each pets, preferably in locations where the cats can use them without being seen by other petss. This lets the pets avoid each other if they choose to without being deprived of an essential resource. Conflict also can be reduced by neutering all of the pets. http://indoorpet.osu.edu/cats/problemsolving/conflict/index.cfm Cribbing is when a horse grabs the edge of a fence rail, stall ledge or post top with his incisors, and arches his neck. It has been suggested that when a horse cribs, his body releases endorphins, natural "drugs" which stimulate the pleasure center of his brain so cribbing becomes an addictive habit. Generally cribbing is considered "incurable" because the horse receives a "reward" ("pleasure drug") every time he cribs. Cribbers are usually hard keepers (they would rather crib than eat) and can be prone to colic. It is necessary to use consistent, specific means to deal with a cribbing horse - cribbing collars and possibly surgery or the long term use of pharmaceuticals, or cribbing muzzles. http://www.horsekeeping.com/horse_behavior/cribbing_or_wood_chewing.htm The AVSAB emphasizes that behavior modification and training
should focus on reinforcing desirable behaviors,
avoiding the reinforcement of undesirable behaviors,
and striving to address the underlying emotional
state and motivations, including medical and genetic
factors, that are driving the undesirable behavior. Wood chewing is when a horse gnaws wood fences, feeders, stall walls, or posts. This is destructive to facilities and the horse can suffer colic from eating wood splinters. Some horses really turn into beavers! Wood chewing is common in foals as they test their first incisors and also when their temporary incisors begin to be replaced at 2 1/2 years of age. To keep wood chewing from developing into a life long habit and to prevent a horse from "discovering" cribbing, provide the horse a well-balanced ration with minerals and plenty of long-stem hay for roughage, especially during cold, wet weather. Horses who are satiated with roughage are much less likely to chew wood. Be sure the horse gets plenty of exercise, with time out on pasture if possible. Protect all wood that the horse comes in contact with. You can do this by covering the wood with sturdy metal edging or use electric fence to keep the horse away from the fence rails altogether. Horses starts kicking once they're in the trailer. This is a very common problem. They kick and they paw after they are loaded. This is a "symptom of a cause". The symptom is the upsetting behavior in the trailer. The cause is "the horse does not want to be in the trailer". Horses are claustrophobic by nature. One reason your horse paws is because he is anxious or afraid. The horse that is fine at home but paws at Clinics or shows is showing anxiety because of all the unfamiliar surroundings and activities. http://www.horsekeeping.com/horse_behavior/cribbing_or_wood_chewing.htm There are two ways to "fix" the problem. First, try putting a hay bag with a little hay in it for the horse to munch on and take it's mind off of being closed in a tight trailer. That is the easiest and simple solution. But, it is only a band-aid to the problem. The other solution is more permanent but takes longer to fix. Train your horse to "like" being in the trailer. You do this by "making the wrong thing hard....and the right thing easy". By this I mean, make being outside the trailer work and being inside the trailer easy and restful. This means teaching your horse to load and unload all over. It's pretty simple really. Take your horse to the trailer and lunge the horse outside the trailer. Make your horse do loads of change of directions. Make them sweat and breath a little heavy. Then let the horse load and relax. Just pet it once on the trailer. Let it just stand there and do nothing in the trailer. Then unload it and work it some more out of the trailer until it is tired. Then load it again and let it relax. It will soon find that it prefers being in the trailer because being outside the trailer is just way too much work.

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Horses-Behavior-Issues-3329/2012/4/horse-kicking-4.htm You can’t physically stop him from pawing but you can to teach him to handle his emotions. Other reasons for pawing are the horse may be in pain. Be sure to eliminate this as a reason with your Veterinarian. Another common reason is the horse has been rewarded in the past for pawing. He was out of food or water and began to paw, you noticed he was out of food or water and solved his problem. In the horses mind he has now taught you a trick, the horse paws and you give him a reward of food. Change your behavior by feeding when he is quiet. http://www.infohorse.com/pawing.asp The expression of pica behavior sometimes indicates an underlying health problem. This problem may be the lack of dietary bulk fiber, or the deficiency of individual nutrients such as salt, phosphorous and potassium. Chronic abdominal pain due to stomach and intestinal disorders and nervous system disturbances are also causes of pica. Affected horses may eat bone, wood, cloth, and other materials to which they have access. Control of pica behavior in horses requires close attention to all aspects of the diet. Feed analysis should be a routine practice, to aid in prevention of deficiencies and related pica behavior. Salt and mineral supplements should be made available at all times, and fresh feed such as grass, greens or carrots should be offered regularly. Feeding times should be consistent, with late night or early morning feeding being included in the schedule. Always provide hay when feeding concentrates, to fulfil grazing behavior as well as for balanced nutrition. Regular deworming is also recommended. http://www.usask.ca/wcvm/herdmed/applied-ethology/behaviourproblems/pica.html Rejection of a foal by its dam can take several forms. The mare might avoid the foal, prevent the foal from nursing or become aggressive toward the foal. Mares in the latter category might assume a threatening posture, pin their ears back when the foal approaches, charge or chase the foal, squeal at the foal, or in more serious cases, might kick at or bite the foal. Mares on rare occasions have seriously injured or killed their foals in the first few days after giving birth. Treatment of the mare with an analgesic, such as Banamine, might be indicated if the mare appears to be rejecting nursing attempts by the foal due to post-foaling pain or mammary gland discomfort. Inflammation of the mammary gland might contribute to refusal of a mare to allow nursing. http://americashorsedaily.com/foal-rejection/ Some horses develop anorexia, which is loss of appetite or lack of desire for food, usually as a secondary condition related to a primary disease. Acute anorexia results in a dramatic weight loss, whereas partial anorexia leads to subtle weight loss over a longer time period. http://equimed.com/diseases-and-conditions/reference/weight-loss First and foremost, treatment of weight loss depends on accurate diagnosis and treatment of the disease or condition that is causing the horse to lose weight. A good parasite control program should be in place to keep the horse healthy. Horses should be examined on a regular basis to determine dental health and correct any problems. Behavior problem of horses Since self-mutilation occurs in other animal species and a variety of human psychopathologic syndromes, it's probably too early to conclude that any of the self-mutilation seen in horses represents the same pathology as Tourette's in people. In other species, the trend in clinical veterinary behavior has been to label self-mutilative behavior "obsessive-compulsive disorder," or OCD. This syndrome in humans has two distinct components. One component is the compulsive, repetitive behavior, such as repeatedly checking to see if the stove has been left on. The other component is the accompanying obsessive thoughts or worries, such as concerns about being caught in a burning building. Often the thoughts or worries are related to the compulsive behavior and logically appear to drive it. The best outcome of immediate and aggressive veterinary evaluation is to identify and quickly treat a physical cause. An equine behavior specialist can be a valuable member of a veterinary team. By evaluating the behavior, possible sites of discomfort can be identified, and an opinion can be offered on primary or secondary psychological components to the episodes. If physical discomfort is eliminated, the self-mutilation typically stops almost immediately. We have seen cases in which months or years passed before a root physical cause was found, in which the self-mutilation stopped immediately when the discomfort was alleviated. http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/equinebehavior/FAQ/selfmutilate.htm Elimination aversion Behavior problems in cats Spraying Solving this behavior Location preference Solving this behavior OCD Solving this behavior Substrate preference Behavior problems in cats Behavior problems in cats Behavior problems in cats Behavior problems in cats Behavior problems in cats Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Hyperesthesia Solving this behavior Stallions experience poor libido if they are overused for breeding, have experienced inhibition through the use of antimasturbation devices, are used out of season, or are injured while breeding. Experience is paramount with stallions, and all of these etiologies support the role of bad experiences; owners who want to restrict show or performance horses from masturbating should be so informed.
Although measurement of testosterone levels may be worthwhile, it is usually uninformative because few horses are truly testosterone-deficient. Stallions that have poor libido should be rested if overused. Letting such stallions watch other stallions mate may have a beneficial effect on their libido.
http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140202.htm Using an artificial vagina to desensitize a stallion that has been injured can be useful. Treatment with diazepam (to address anxiety) and oxytocin, testosterone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (to address the hormonal basis of erection, intromission, and ejaculation) can help. Stallions that will intromit, but not ejaculate, may benefit from hormone-based treatments. Letting such stallions watch other stallions mate may have a beneficial effect on their libido. Providing them with a variety of teaser mares, mating partners (the Coolidge effect, ie, an increase in mating attempts following introduction of a new partner), and other stallions can also stimulate their interest. Coprophagia is a normal behavior in foals that may play a role in B-vitamin supplementation and influence the intestinal flora. It is most common in the first month of life, after which it usually declines. When it is seen in adults, it is usually associated with low roughage, low protein, or a dietary deficiency. Obesity can be the result of decreased exercise, increased palatable food, and under-stimulation (horses that eat in the absence of other activities). To avoid hyperlipemia, food should not be abruptly removed from obese horses. Reducing intake (by feeding the horse decreased amounts) while increasing exercise is preferable. Horses fed rations that are calorically diluted will compensate by eating more if fed ad lib. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140202.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140202.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140202.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140202.htm Elimination aversion To prevent your horse from becoming obese is simple, just make sure your horse is getting proper exercise and eating a healthy and balanced diet. You should make sure your horse drinks lots of water to rid the body of wastes and make your horses digestive system run efficiently. Give your horse a diet that is high in fiber and low in fat/energy, also try measuring the horses feed by weight instead of volume to help you determine appropriate rations. Lastly, the horse’s diet should be balanced on age and the amount of activity it does, make sure you continue to meet the vitamin, mineral, and protein requirements. Hyperesthesia has the following necessary condition: tactile response in excess of that warranted by external stimuli. The following condition is sufficient: repetitive, uninterruptable tactile response in excess of that warranted by external stimuli, or that may occur in the absence of external stimuli and may be accompanied by locomotor activity and vocalization. Most of the diagnoses pertaining to this condition originate in the dermatologic literature and are purely descriptive of the behaviors (eg, twitchy cat syndrome). http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140222.htm Substrate preference has the following necessary and sufficient conditions: consistent elimination on a particular surface or substrate (eg, carpet, ceramic tile). The behavior may occur in a single or multiple locations. Elimination aversion for substrate or location has the following necessary condition: consistent avoidance of locations or substrates formerly used for elimination. The following condition is sufficient: consistent avoidance of locations or substrates formerly used for elimination, accompanied by behaviors that are concurrent with active or passive avoidance or distaste that is amplified if the cat is forced to eliminate in the area or on the substrate that the cat finds aversive. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140221.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140221.htm In these cases, the primary dietary problem must be addressed; treatment always involves increasing the amount of roughage in the diet and may involve increasing the amount of protein. Spraying has the following necessary condition: elimination of urine through species-specific postures, including vertical stance, elevation and quivering of the tail, and treading of the feet, that propel urine against a vertical surface if one is available. The following condition is sufficient: the detection of urine at a height that is equal to that of the cat; dripping could contribute to a secondary puddle on a lower, horizontal surface. Spraying can be a variant of normal feline elimination behaviors and can be performed by both males and females. Cats also spray when they are distressed or anxious. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140221.htm Location preference has the following necessary and sufficient conditions: consistent elimination in an area or a few areas that are restricted to one location and are not linked by some common sensory aspect. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140221.htm Idiopathic aggression Behavior problem in dogs Play aggression Behavior problem in dogs Possesive aggression Behavior problem in dogs Food related Behavior problem in dogs Pain Behavior problem in dogs Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Solving this behavior Predatory Behavior problem in dogs Solving this behavior Maternal Behavior problem in dogs Solving this behavior Protective Behavior problem in dogs Solving this behavior Territorial Behavior problem in dogs Solving this behavior Confined, stabled horses can spend 25% of their time in nondirected motor activity within their stall. They may become exhausted or tangled in their bedding; in warm climates, they may become overheated. Classic stall walking or circling is usually in response to separation from another horse or to claustrophobia; it is usually rapid and accompanied by vocalization. Clients should watch for nonspecific signs of anxiety (eg, pacing, startling, changes in typical ingestive and elimination behaviors, changes in vocalization, etc) when stablemates or housing conditions change. The less appreciated form of stall walking involves stereotypic behavior. In this case, the motor activity itself becomes a manifestation of an obsessive-compulsive disorder; it is not accompanied by vocalization. Treatment should address the primary problem, including increasing exercise; providing social company (which need not be a horse); allowing the horse to see other horses; providing thick, clean bedding; feeding frequently (or at least twice per day); providing more open stalls and better access to outside views; and antianxiety or anti-obsessive-compulsive medication. Treatments for feline elimination disorders include addressing any underlying anxieties and their associated active or passive aggressions, observing meticulous litter hygiene, and determining what combination of litter, box, and location is preferred by the cat. Consistent avoidance of locations or substrates formerly used for elimination. The following condition is sufficient: consistent avoidance of locations or substrates formerly used for elimination, accompanied by behaviors that are concurrent with active or passive avoidance or distaste that is amplified if the cat is forced to eliminate in the area or on the substrate that the cat finds aversive. Treatments for feline elimination disorders include addressing any underlying anxieties and their associated active or passive aggressions, observing meticulous litter hygiene, and determining what combination of litter, box, and location is preferred by the cat. The first involves making a competent diagnosis; appropriate social intervention and manipulation and potentially the use of synthetic pheromones or tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or some of the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The second involves regular daily cleaning/sifting of the litter, weekly changing and washing of the litter box, and the use of good odor eliminators after cleaning soiled areas with copious amounts of water and mild soaps. The third involves use of litter substrates that more closely resemble the ancestral substrate (sands, clumpable litters) and alteration of the overall litter environment (changing box shape, size, number, location and type.

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140221.htm First, look at your cat’s environment. If you can pinpoint anything that seems to be stressing him out, deal with it. Separate housemates that do not get along. Feed animals separately if meal times are a contentious time. Close the curtains if the goings-on outdoors are too stimulating for your cat. Pet and play with your cat.
Put on music or a "cat video" when you have to be gone.
Provide a perch for your cat so he can comfortably watch what’s going on outside as long as this isn’t a trigger for him.
Put out a little cat nip and change the toys that your cat has access to on a regular basis.
Provide scratching posts and structures to climb on.
Feed at the same time at least twice a day. If you feed only dry food, try offering some canned.
Keep your cat’s schedule as predictable as possible. Early neutering of your kitten will in most cases stop your cat from spraying in the future. Neutering after spraying activity has commenced may reduce it. Another study showed that 77% of cats reduced or stopped spraying within six months of being neutered or spayed. Clomicalm and valium are drugs available only from Veterinarians and are used for treating spraying problems in cats. Some people report that their cats lose their personality and become zombies when on anti anxiety drugs. For multiple cat households, increase the number of litter pans to one litter pan per cat, plus 1 extra litter pan. Each cat in a multi cat household should have their own food and water dishes. Remove waste from litter pans daily and change all litter once a week. Add canned food to the cat's diet. Use an enzyme cleaner (e.g. Urine Off, Nature's Miracle for Cate Urine, etc) where marking has occurred. Before doing anything else, it is important to have your cat examined by a veterinarian. Your cat may have an undiagnosed medical problem which may be causing him or her to use the litter box inconsistently. Treatment begins with a complete physical examination to rule out diseases. Inappropriate elimination in multi-cat households can often be corrected by providing additional litter boxes--there should be one more box than number of cats--by arranging placement of the boxes to afford easy escape, by placing at least one box on each level of the home and by cleaning the boxes more often.Litter should be scooped and sifted daily, and litter removed and boxes scrubbed thoroughly with water weekly. Obsessive behaviors include wool-sucking (pica, or the eating of non-food substances) and psychogenic alopecia, which is hair loss and baldness from excessive grooming of the hair and skin.Animals with compulsive disorders tend to be relatively anxious and high strung. It isn't common to find OCD-type behavior in laidback animals. An anxious nature may be inherited, however, research indicates a component of 'nurture,' for example, a high conflict situation, is necessary for expression of a compulsive behavior. -Feeding and routine care (litter box scooping, brushing, etc.) should happen at the same time each day.
-Keep food bowls and litter boxes in the same spot – don't move them around unnecessarily.
-Keep litter boxes clean, as well as bedding.
-Provide an assortment of appropriate cat toys, hiding boxes, scratching posts/trees, etc., and make sure your pet has plenty, if not constant access to these goodies.
Consider playing soothing music for an hour or two each day Idiopathic aggression has the following necessary and sufficient condition: aggression that occurs in an unpredictable, toggle-switch manner in contexts not associated with stimuli noted for any other behavioral aggression diagnosis or with any underlying causal physical or physiologic condition. This diagnosis must be distinguished from any neurologic condition. Signs of Territorial Behavior :
-Urinating on things in the yard or during walks
-Barking and charging fence when people or dogs approach or pass
-Stiff body language, hard eyeing of visitors you permit into house or yard
-Low, guttural growl directed toward person or dog approaching/entering property
-Aggression toward a person or dog entering property
-Barking and/or growling at people or dogs from inside owner's vehicle

http://www.dogchannel.com/dog-training/dog-behavior/territorial-dog.aspx Dogs suspected of having this form of aggression should always be treated by a veterinary behaviorist to get a correct diagnoses. Many of these dogs have medical problems which can be identified and treated (for example, epilepsy). For those dogs which are truly idiopathic aggressors, the prognoses is poor. The unpredictability and violence of their outbursts makes it dangerous to live with them. http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf
http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2011/08/23/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-dogs-and-cats.aspx Dogs with possessive aggression guard things (as opposed to food, space, or people). These dogs will not relinquish toys or stolen objects even if they present them to the owner in an apparent solicitation of play - when the owner reaches for the item, the dog growls, snarls, snaps, or bites. Treatment is accomplished through counter-conditioning. If your dog barks and growls when you open the door and will not respond to your commands to stop, put them behind closed doors or in a crate before opening the door. Banish the dog from situations that elicit the aggressive response until the dog is calm and can respond to your verbal cues. If your have a territorially aggressive dog, you should display a "Beware of Dog" sign. http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf http://www.fyrnicesamoyeds.com/pdf/TYPES%20OF%20AGGRESSION%20RECOGNIZED%20IN%20DOGS.pdf As the name implies, this is aggression that occurs in the presence of food or "food-type" items such as rawhides, bones, treats, etc. This form of aggression directed towards people is believed to be the best early indicator that dominance aggression is likely to develop. There are dogs that are food-aggressive only to other animals in the household. This form of aggression is characterized by a dog who perceives a threat to his owner,
handler, or family member (may be another dog) when there is no actual threat. Common
scenarios involve the strangers or people known to the dog at the door, when someone
approaches a car the dog is sitting in with his owner, or when another dog approaches.
These dogs sometimes react to raised voices, and people hugging. The thing to remember
here is that the protective aggressive dog is behaving aggressively when no real threat
exists, which differs significantly from the same behavior when an actual threat does exist. In most cases, avoidance is easier than treatment - simply feed the dog where he can be left undisturbed and do not give the dog access to food type resources that elicit bad behavior - for example, your dog does not need rawhides to survive - just don't give them to the dog. Treatment of these dogs involves avoidance of situations in which they are likely to behave
badly until such time as they have mastered voice commands and readily take them from
their owner. Once these skills are mastered, the owner can begin to desensitize and
counter-condition the dog to behave differently. play growls are usually highpitched, short, and frequently repeated as opposed to the lower pitched sustained growls of a serious threat. However, some dogs do not change their pitch when growling or change it so quickly that the owner has no time to react. These dogs often raise their hackles, flatten their ears, and dilate the pupils. Play aggression may become self-sustaining since play is a rewarding activity and some sources have reported that the dog may become more aggressive to evoke a response from the owner. Most dogs can learn that if they behave too roughly, the game is over - the owner simply stops playing. For those dogs that won't take "no" for an answer, non-physical corrections are indicated. Canned air (like that sold for dusting computers) and water are first choices (water can be sprayed from a water pistol, squeeze bottle, or plant mister set on the "stream" setting). Occurs only during pregnancy, "false pregnancy", and in the presence
of pups. Mother dogs sometimes "guard" their babies from very long distances and
generally do not bite unless the puppy or toy (which the dog perceives to be a puppy during
a false pregnancy) is taken. Repeated perceived threats may cause the mother dog to kill
and/or eat the puppies. Treatment is 100% effective by spaying the affected dog once the false pregnancy has
passed or the real puppies have found new homes. Two types of behaviors commonly fall within a diagnosis of predatory aggression. The first
type is the dog that stalks "small prey" which can be birds, squirrels, cats, small dogs or
other critters. These dogs may or may not be dangerous with infants, but because infants
act in a manner similar to small prey, these dogs warrant special attention. The second type
is the dog that chases moving objects such as joggers, bikers, skateboarders, etc. Some of
what looks like predatory aggression may be territorial aggression. Dogs, which are
exhibiting territorial aggression generally, have a "boundary" where the behavior starts and
stops - for example, it occurs when the dog is home, but not when taken to the park for an
outing. Abnormal ingestion Other problems in dogs Some sources indicate that this type of aggression can not be successfully treated while
others report success using a "negative reinforcer" which has been taught to the dog. Some
predatory dogs do well with children, but it is important to exercise caution regardless of
your belief or the pet's training. In other words, never trust any dog alone with any infant -
or child, for that matter. Further, dogs which kill other animals (regardless of species)
should never be Attention seeking Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Cognitive dysfunction Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Neo phobia Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Roaming Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior A response to pain the aggressive dog is
experiencing. This pain can be acute as in a sudden injury (hit by a car) or chronic (as in hip
dysplasia). Most dogs suffering pain aggression will warn first, but not always.
Treatment involves pain management. Veterinarians have to contend with this type of
aggression frequently and may do so using muzzles (to limit damage) or by using sedatives
or anaesthesia to treat the dog. Children are also victims of this type of aggression since
they frequently make poor decisions (play roughly) and are uncoordinated when playing
sometimes tripping over or falling on a dog. Noise phobia Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Inappropriate play Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Hyperactivity Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Separation anxiety Other problems in dogs Solving this behavior Children as young as 18 months can be taught
to treat a dog gently and approach it safely. Children and dogs should always be physically
separated when there is no adult present to supervise both in a direct line of sight. Ignoring the dog when he asks for attention is the first step in extinguishing the behavior. The other step requires that you reverse the relationship. Instead of your dog asking for your attention, you need to be calling the shots. You initiate the petting instead of your dog. And if your dog seeks attention, first ignore him, then have your dog sit or do some other activity. By doing this, then you are in charge, not your dog. It’s so, so cute when they are puppies. The nose nudge, an occasional paw smacking your arm, the look of love, the undivided attention to you - the one they love. So irresistible and appealing to our need to be loved. But when they grow up, so annoying! Some dogs learn at a very young age that if they ask to be petted by barking or nose-nudging or any other clever means, they will get attention. And they will never stop. http://chrisshaughness.wordpress.com/2011/05/02/dog-training-tip-of-the-week-attention-seeking/ Cognitive dysfunction in dogs includes spatial orientation, housetraining, and recognizing and reacting to human family members. Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome is the age-related deterioration of cognitive abilities characterized by behavioral changes in dogs that cannot wholly attributed to general medical conditions such as neoplasia, infection or organ failure. More simply put, CDS is caused by physical and chemical changes that affect the brain function in older dogs. CDS often is referred to simply as “old dog syndrome” or “senility." Recapturing the good times between you and your senior dog is now an exciting possibility thanks to Anipryl, the first and only drug cleared by the FDA to control clinical signs associated with canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome. Anipryl comes in a convenient tablet form for easy dosing. The tendency of an animal to avoid or retreat from an unfamiliar object or situation. Fear includes behaviors such as trembling, panting, whining and avoidance or attempts at escape when around new things. http://www.cpvh.com/2011/07/24/cognitive-dysfunction-canine/ A hyper dog is almost frantic in his activity. He pants constantly, and his heart rate is always above normal. He often doesn't stop his abnormal behavior until he is completely worn out. The most common cause is that your dog just isn't getting enough exercise, and has pent up energy he needs to release. This often leads to behavioral problems such as digging which can be a nuisance. It also can make him restless, and he will find it hard to relax and settle down. Some neophobic dogs benefit from long-term, daily anti-anxiety medication. Medication doesn’t cure neophobic dogs, but it can help them cope better. When medicated, many neophobic dogs have less intense fearful reactions, seem less vigilant and recover from scary events more quickly.

http://www.aspca.org/Pet-care/virtual-pet-behaviorist/dog-articles/neophobia-fear-of-new-things To get to the bottom of your dog's behavior problems, you firstly need to visit your veterinarian. Based on your conversation and a full examination of your seemingly hyper dog, she can come to a conclusion about the reason for his excess activity levels. She may prescribe medication to treat any medical causes of his behavior. http://www.dog-obedience-training-review.com/hyperactive-dogs.html In addition to inhibited bites and selfhandicapping, dogs clearly demarcate play by employing signals, such as play bows (i.e., putting the front half of the body on the ground while keeping the rear half up in the air) and exaggerated, bouncy movements. Anthropologist Gregory Bateson called play signals meta-communication, meaning communication about communication. Humans employ meta-communication a lot. For example, when teasing a friend, we may smile or use a certain tone of voice to indicate that we’re just kidding. Similarly, dogs play bow to invite play and to convey playful intentions during play. Male dogs not intended for any breeding programs should be neutered. This will not only cut down on the dog's urge to roam, but also make the dog easier to train and less aggressive, according to Race Foster, DVM. But all male dogs, castrated or not, need to be kept on a lead, tied up or behind a sturdy fence so they do not roam. Making sure the dog has plenty of toys and food to keep him occupied can keep the dog from getting bored. Sometimes getting a spayed female dog can help keep the male dog at home. Male dogs tend to fight with other male dogs, even after neutering.

http://www.ehow.com/about_6540572_male-dog-roaming-behavior.html Initially the pup needs to be taught to be subdominant (as described by Prof Abrantes). This was accomplish with the use of stern vocal corrections and threatening body posturing from the handler. As soon as the pup displays a willingness to accept the superiority of the handler the pup was rewarded with prey play, competitive ball games where by the pup was encouraged to retrieve the ball and return to the handler to engage in a tug of war game. This allows for further control exercises to be taught as the pup was frequently allowed to win but did also have to release the ball when commanded by the handler and then the whole process of retrieval began again. Such play was need to be frequently interrupted with basic obedience exercises such as sitting and dropping. The pup readily will learn to obey the commands and that a reward of play would immediately follow. An excessive fear of a sound that results in the dog attempting to avoid or escape from the sound. It's an irrational, intense and persistent fear response that can develop at any age and in any dog breed.
Trying to escape from the noise, a dog's normal instinctive behavior is to seek shelter to avoid danger. But things can go awry when dogs overreact to sounds that don’t represent danger.
Characteristic behavior can include but may not be limited to hiding, urinating, defecating, chewing, drooling, panting, pacing, trembling, shaking, and barking. A fearful dog might seek out his human family; try to escape the noise by jumping through windows or chewing through walls, and running away.


Although there is no cure for noise phobia, treatment approaches include behavior modification, environmental controls and drug therapy, almost always included in the treatment where moderate to severe fears are present. Medication can include several different classes of drugs that include anti-anxiety, antidepressants and tranquilizers to alleviate a dog's fear response. Effective treatment for dogs prone to flee from fearful sounds can be as simple as offering them refuge in a pet crate covered with a heavy blanket as a partial sound barrier. If the dog is afraid of thunderstorms, bring the dog inside and turn on an appliance or television, or play music to override the noise. Abnormal ingestive behavior has the following necessary condition: consistent ingestion of abnormal amounts or types of food or nonfood material in a manner or frequency not consistent with previous behavior. The following condition is sufficient: incessant consumption of food or nonfood material, or incessant avoidance of food, in a manner that interferes with normal social functioning. Roaming has the following necessary and sufficient condition: locomotory activity involving extended absences and greater distances than those needed for the animal to relieve itself. Trajectory of movement may be determined by the presence and estrous cycles of other animals, or by behaviors related to patrol. Roaming is almost always a variant of normal behavior. It is of concern because it can pose a risk to the pet’s health and safety. Owners that allow pets to roam may also be in violation of leash or animal control laws. One of the most common complaints of pet parents is that their dogs are disruptive or destructive when left alone. Their dogs might urinate, defecate, bark, howl, chew, dig or try to escape. Separation anxiety is triggered when dogs become upset because of separation from their guardians, the people they’re attached to. Escape attempts by dogs with separation anxiety are often extreme and can result in self-injury and household destruction, especially around exit points like windows and doors. When treating a dog with separation anxiety, the goal is to resolve the dog’s underlying anxiety by teaching him to enjoy, or at least tolerate, being left alone. This is accomplished by setting things up so that the dog experiences the situation that provokes his anxiety, namely being alone, without experiencing fear or anxiety

http://pets.webmd.com/dogs/separation-anxiety-dogs http://associationofanimalbehaviorprofessionals.com/whats_wrong_with_dominance.html Solving this behavior Elimination problems in dogs Marking Solving this behavior Substrate preference Solving this behavior Submissive Solving this behavior Excitement Elimination problems in dogs Elimination problems in dogs Elimination problems in dogs HASTA LA VISTA!!! Excitement urination has the following necessary condition: urination that occurs only when the dog is engaged in active behavior and is concomitantly demonstrating physical and physiologic signs of excitement (rapid motor activity; high-pitched greeting; panting and salivation associated with open-mouthed, relaxed, greeting face, etc) rather than fear. Submissive urination has the following necessary condition: urination that occurs in an otherwise housetrained animal only when the animal is exhibiting species-specific postures associated with extreme deferential behavior. The following condition is sufficient: urination that occurs in an otherwise housetrained animal only when the animal is exhibiting species-specific postures associated with extreme deferential behavior and that is worsened by approaches that solicit such deferential behaviors (eg, reaching over, rolling over) in an animal that is showing no signs of fear or aggression. Substrate preference for elimination has the following necessary and sufficient condition: consistent elimination in an area(s) that is linked by some common sensory aspect, and avoidance or rejection of alternate materials or conditions. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140216.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140216.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140216.htm http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/140216.htm Marking behavior has the following necessary condition: urination or defecation that occurs in frequencies or locations inconsistent solely with evacuation of bladder and bowel but consistent with social and olfactory stimuli. Appropriate housetraining in dogs involves exposure to the preferred substrate for elimination starting at that age, absence of physical punishment, emphasis on positive reinforcement, frequent trips to the desired area (as often as every 30 min-1 hr for small puppies; smaller breeds have smaller bladders and higher metabolic rates), use of good odor eliminators, and startling the dog for correction only when the dog is caught in the act of eliminating in an inappropriate place. Exercising dogs within 15-30 min of eating and immediately after play, awakening, or if they slow down, can help speed the housetraining process. Housetraining an older dog is more a matter of reshaping the animal’s behavior and encouraging it to select a more appropriate substrate. For young puppies of small breeds, “litter boxes” may be an appropriate adjuvant. Behaviors that are correlated with the elimination must be avoided (eg, enthusiastic greeting for a puppy with excitement urination). The presence of an older dog (observational learning and scent) can help in training a puppy. Inhibition can be encouraged through the humane use of a crate or restricted area. Prevention is paramount, and owners should know that puppies obtained from pet stores are usually much more difficult to housetrain than those obtained from preferred sources, because they have never had to inhibit elimination and may have learned to play with or eat feces. Exercising dogs within 15-30 min of eating and immediately after play, awakening, or if they slow down, can help speed the housetraining process. Housetraining an older dog is more a matter of reshaping the animal’s behavior and encouraging it to select a more appropriate substrate Most dogs mark their territory!
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