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Bipolar Disorder

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Alice Lai

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of Bipolar Disorder

Today's Flow
VIII.
Q&A Session
I. Definition
a mood disorder characterized by episodes of an elevated or agitated mood known as
mania
, usually
alternating
with episodes of
depression

about 3% of people have
bi
polar
disorder

worldwide, a proportion consistent for both men and women and across racial and ethnic groups

6th most prevalent disability in the world among people aged under 60 in high-income countries;
8th in low-income and middle-income countries

affecting 29.5 million people worldwide
IV. Effects and Impacts
can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts
one out of two people attempt at least once during their lifetime
annual average suicide rate of 0.4%, 10-20 times that of general population
lifetime risk of suicide estimated to be as high as 20%
VII. What Can We Do?
VI. Common Myths

Bi
polar

Disorder

CHEUNG KA YIU, Yoyo
LAI YAN KING, Alice

II. Causes
causes of BPD
vary between individuals
the exact mechanism underlying the disorder remains
unclear
genetic influences are believed to account for
60-80%
of the risk of developing the disorder indicating a
strong hereditary component
overall
heritability
of the bipolar spectrum has been estimated at
0.71

III. Subtypes
no clear consensus
on how many types of BPD
DSM-IV-TR lists three specific subtypes and one for non-specified
*subcategories specify whether there has been more than one episode, and the type of the most recent episode
*depressive episodes are common but unnecessary to make the diagnosis
Supporting group in Hong Kong
IX. References
I. Definition
II. Causes
III. Subtypes
IV. Effects and Impacts
V. Relevant Treatment
VI. Common Myths
VII. What Can We Do?
VIII. Q&A Session
IX. References

1.Bipolar disorder and depression are the same thing.
2. People with bipolar disorder are safer when they are in their mania phase.
3.Mood swings of extreme happiness or sadness are normal for most people, not just for those with bipolar symptoms.
4.You will definitely have bipolar symptoms if bipolar disorder runs in your family.
5.People with bipolar disorder are often a danger to others.
6.Biopolar disorder only affect mood.
V.Relevant Treatment
MEDICATION
--> to keep the symptons under control
--> long term basis
--> to reduce the frequency and severity of bipolar mood episodes
PSYCHOTHERAPY
--> working with a therapist, to learn how to manage stress, difficulties, and regulate the mood.
LIFESTYLE MANAGEMENT
--> regulating lifestyle
eg. regulating sleep schedule,
avoiding drugs and alcohol,
minimizing stress
Behavior therapy
: focuses on behaviors that decrease stress.
Cognitive therapy
: involves learning to identify and modify the patterns of thinking that accompany mood shifts.
Interpersonal therapy
: focuses on current relationship issues
Social rhythm therapy
: helps to develop and maintain daily routines
PSYCHOTHERAPY
Role on family and friends
Role on Society
Role on Government /
supporting groups
- get the person into counseling
-share your concern in a loving way
-understanding, patience, encouragement
-establishing a daily routine

-should not stereotype them as "Crazy people"
--> what the media can do?


-provides health centres to give treatment and professional advice
-vocational centres to enhance their skills
Society for Advancement of Bipolar Affective disorder:
http://www.sabad.org.hk/index.html

1. How is the mental disability portrayed by the TV shows and news?
2. How might those images influence the recovery of mental disabilities?
3. What can the media do to reduce the stereotypes of mental disability?
let's discuss together!
MANIA
- Manic episodes
exhibit
three or more
of the following behaviors:
speak in a rapid, uninterruptible manner
are easily distracted
have racing thoughts
display an increase in goal-oriented activities or feel agitated
exhibit behaviors characterized as impulsive or high-risk such as hypersexuality or excessive money spending
distinct period of at least one week of
elevated or irritable mood

*must impair the individual's ability to socialize or work to meet the definition for a manic episode
*usually lasts three to six months if untreated
*manic individuals often have issues with substance abuse due to a combination of thrill-seeking and poor judgment
DEPRESSION
- Depressive episodes
Mania
can occur with different levels of severity, which can be measured by rating scales such as the
Young Mania Rating Scale
can experience
psychosis
, or a
break with reality
at more extreme levels
may feel out of control or unstoppable, or as if they have been "chosen" and are on a special mission, or have other
grandiose or delusional ideas
approximately 50% of those with bipolar disorder experience
delusions or hallucinations
may lead to
violent behaviors and hospitalization
in an inpatient psychiatric hospital

does not cause a significant decrease in the ability to socialize or work
lacks psychotic features (i.e., delusions or hallucinations)
does not require psychiatric hospitalization

Hypomania
is a
milder form

of mania
defined as at least four days of the same criteria as mania, but
*Overall functioning may actually increase
*Some show increased creativity/ others are irritable or demonstrate poor judgment
*Generally have increased energy and increased activity levels
*May feel good to the person who experiences it
persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, anger, isolation, hopelessness
disturbances in sleep and appetite
fatigue and loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities
problems concentrating; loneliness, self-loathing, apathy or indifference
depersonalization
loss of interest in sexual activity
shyness or social anxiety
irritability, chronic pain (with or without a known cause)
lack of motivation
morbid suicidal thoughts
*may become
psychotic
in severe cases of bipolar depression
*symptoms include
delusions
or, less commonly,
hallucinations
, which are usually unpleasant
*a major episode persists for at least two weeks, and may continue for over six months if left untreated
Genetic
Physiological
Environmental
Neurological
Neuroendocrinological
Evolutionary
Eason Chan, Britney Spears, Stephen Fry, Russell Brand, Amy Winehouse...
“I'm selfish, impatient and a little insecure. I make mistakes, I am out of control and at times hard to handle. But if you can't handle me at my worst, then you sure as hell don't deserve me at my best.” ―
- Marilyn Monroe
Allen, T. (Artist). (2013, 11 29). Real Monster- Bipolar Disorder [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://zestydoesthings.tumblr.com/image/68482718429
The World Health Organization, (2008).
The global burden of disease: 2004 update
. Retrieved from website: http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf?ua=1
Society for Advancement of Bipolar Affective Disorder,(2012).
About SABAD, 2014 updated.
Retrieved from: http://pub.sabad.org.hk/main.php?id=1
Hospital Authority. Smart Patient Website:
Bipolar Affective Disorder, April, 9, 2014 updated.
Retrieved from: http://www21.ha.org.hk/smartpatient/en/chronicdiseases_zone/details.html?id=182#6
Helpguide. org:
Bipolar Disorder Treatment.
Retrieved from: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/bipolar_disorder_diagnosis_treatment.htm
(World Health Organization [WHO], 2008)
(Allen, Real Monster- Bipolar Disorder)
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/2518723
Hypomania may help
boost creativity
+
Severe episodes of mania or depression can
cripple one's ability to work / socialize
-
Match each description or case by choosing its corresponding disorder:
(a)
mania
, (b)
major depressive episode
, and (c)
bipolar I disorder
.

1. Feeling certain he would win the lottery, Charles went on an all-night shopping spree, maxing out all his credit cards without a worry. We know he’s done this several times, feeling abnormally extreme elation, joy, and euphoria.

2. For the past few weeks, Jennifer has been sleeping a lot. She feels worthless, can’t get up the energy to leave the house, and has lost a lot of weight. Her problem is the most common and extreme mood disorder.

3. Last week, as he does about every 3 months, Ryan went out with his friends, buying rounds of drinks, socializing until early morning, and feeling on top of the world. Today Ryan will not even get out of bed to go to work, see his friends, or even turn on the lights.
1.
Bipolar I disorder:
One or more manic episodes
2.

Bipolar II disorder:
No manic episodes, but one or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episode
3.
Cyclothymia:
A history of hypomanic episodes with periods of depression that do not meet criteria for major depressive episodes
4.
Bipolar disorder NOS
(not otherwise specified): A catchall category, diagnosed when the disorder does not fall within a specific subtype
WedMD(2005). Bipolar disorder health centre, 2013 updated. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/understanding-bipolar-disorder-treatment
TV mental health portrayal rapped (2010,November,22)
BBC News Health.
Retrieved from:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-11800017
Mental Health Association of Hong Kong(2002),Retrieved from: http://www.mhahk.org.hk/chi/sub2_1_service_2.htm
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance:
Myths and Fact about Depression and Bipolar Disorder, 2005 updated.
Retrieved from: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/DocServer/MythsFacts_FINAL.pdf?docID=2941
WedMD(2005). Bipolar disorder health centre, 2013 updated. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/understanding-bipolar-disorder-treatment

Supporting group in Hong Kong
Mental Health Association of Hong Kong:
http://www.mhahk.org.hk/chi/sub2_1_service_2.htm
17/4/2014
Mental Illness
Full transcript