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Chapter 25: The U.S. in WWII

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by

Eileen Brown

on 18 June 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 25: The U.S. in WWII

Operation Fortitude
Fake army, hq, messages, and equipment
Keep the Germans focused on Calais
Op. Overlord was 150 miles away
Mobilization of Scientists
1941 - FDR creates the OSRD
Improvements in radar and sonar
Pesticides
Developments with penicillin
Weapon development
The atomic bomb
1939 German scientists
Albert Einstein
1942 -
The Manhattan Project
Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense
"Remember Pearl Harbor"
About 5 mill young men volunteered
Two front war
Selective Service System was force to expand

Creation of the
WAAC
Pushed for by Army Chief of Staff -
General George Marshall
Non-combative service
Opposition
May 1942 - WAC - same status as male soldiers
Creation of the WAVES
August 1942 - Official part of the Navy
Eleanor Roosevelt pushed Congress

Recruiting and Discrimination
Why fight?
Denied civil rights
Many chose to fight (Hundred-thousands)
Segregated units and limited jobs
Asian Americans served as translators and spies
Mistrust
Defense contractors refused to hire African Americans
Given menial jobs
A. Phillip Randolph
protested the discrimination
Founder of labor union
Planned to march on Washington
FDR asked for the march to be called off
Randolph refused
FDR issued an executive order to employers and labor unions
Randolph called off the march
The Federal Government Takes Control
Threat of inflation
Office of Price Administration
(OPA)
Freezes prices
Sets up
rationing
Fixed allotments
The black market
The public was encouraged to buy war bonds
Congress raises and extends taxes
Less money to spend = less demand for goods
The War Production Board (WPB)
Resources for the armed forces and war industries
Converting companies
Raw materials to key industries
Drives to collect scrap to be recycled
The Battle of the Atlantic
U-boat raids (wolf packs are back)
Goal = prevent supplies and food getting to Europe
Section 2: The War for Europe and North Africa
Dec. 1941 - Churchill and FDR to strategize
Believed Europe was the bigger threat
U.S. organized convoys
Escorted by destroyers and airplanes
Ship production outnumbered sinkings
1943 - Allies have the upper-hand
Chapter 25: The U.S. in WWII
A Production Miracle
Feb. 1942 - End of production of cars for private use
Factories were refitted for war production
Factory made parts were assembled at ship yards
Liberty ships
Over 6 million women took factory jobs
Opposition

The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean
Summer 1942 - Hitler wants the Soviet oil fields and Stalingrad (industrial city)
The Germans took most of the city
The North African Front
The G. are heading for the Suez Canal
Oil fields in the Middle East
Push back by the B. - Battle of El Alamein
Winter - The Soviets made a move
Tanks close in and around the city
Trapping the Germans
Cutting off supplies
Over a million Soviet soldiers died defending the city
The Soviets move west
Operation Torch - North Africa
Gen.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Fall 1942 - Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers
Pushing in from the coast
Allied ships and planes cut supplies from I.
Rommel's Afrika Korps is trapped
G. surrender - May 1943
The U.S. wanted to cross the Channel into France
The British wanted to move in from Italy
FDR and Churchill meet in Casablanca
Will only accept an unconditional surrender
Allies dictate the terms of peace
Second front to relieve pressure on S.U.
Summer of 1943 - Sicily is captured
Mussolini was forced to resign by the king and public
Attempts to escape
Captured and executed
Shot, hung upsidedown, and beaten by the public
The Allies attempt to move up Italy
Hitler does not want to fight on German soil
Strong resistance
To break G. defenses the Allies launch Operation Shingle
1944 - Bypass the G. through an amphibious attack at Anzio
4 month battle - Allied victory

Heroes in Combat - Italy and North Africa
The Tuskegee Airmen
All black
Victories and citations
Company E of the 141st Regiment, 36th Division
All Mexican-American
The Allies Liberate Europe
Operation Overlord
Eisenhower
Invade France and free Western Europe
American, British, and Canadian
Top secret
The 100th Battalion / the 442nd Regimental Combat Team
Japanese-American
(Nisei - Hawaiian with Japanese parents)
Most decorated unit
June 6, 1944 - D-Day
Beaches of Normandy
High amounts of casualties but land was won
Largest land-sea-air operation
Gen. Omar Bradley broke the G. defenses
Gen. George Patton
and the Third Army advanced to the Seine
(Meanwhile back at the ranch ... FDR is elected to a 4th term)
August 1944 - Patton and his men reached Paris
Assisted by the Resistance
Paris was liberated
September - All of France, Belgium, and Luxembourg are liberated
The Battle of the Bulge
Dec. 1944
Hitler pushes for his troops to break the Allied lines
Panzer division
Break in the line results in a "bulge"
(American POWs were executed)
Allied air raids cause the G. to lose ground
Allied troops continue to push east
Soviets move towards the west
Unconditional Surrender
Soviets storm Berlin
Spring 1945 - Hitler heads to his bunker
Suicide
April 12, 1945 - FDR dies (stroke)
Harry S. Truman

May 8, 1945 =
V-E Day
Marries his mistress
Kills his dog, and he and his wife commit suicide
Orders his body to be burned
Spring '45 - Americans liberate Buchenwald
Prisoners managed to gain control
1st to come across a death camp
Summer 1944 - Poland (Majdanek)
Largest crematorium
Winter '45 - liberated Auschwitz
Section 3: War in the Pacific
Many early victories for J.
The J. code was broken
Midway
was the next target
Admiral Nimitz
Scout planes located the J.
The fleet was attack - huge loss
The Battle of Midway
- turning point
The Allies Go on the Offensive
Island hopping campaign
Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) - Aug. 1942
J. soldiers used guerrilla warfare
J.'s first land defeat
Six month of battle

The Battle of Leyte Gulf - Oct. 1944
Gen. MacArthur
The J. navy was nearly destroyed
Kamikaze pilots
The Philippines are won back
Iwo Jima
Heavily defended by the J.
Okinawa
Almost 2,ooo kamikaze attacks
J.'s last defensive outpost
Two islands needed as bases for invading Japan
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Manhattan Project - begun in 1942
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Successfully tested July 1945
Truman believed invasion of Japan would cause too many casualties
Unconditional surrender or "prompt and utter destruction"
Japan refused
August 6, 1945 -
Hiroshima
(Little Boy)
August 9, 1945 -
Nagasaki
(Fat Man)
Over 200,000 died immediately or later as a result of
Week after - J. surrendered
The Emperor asked to keep his title (no power)
Formal surrender - September 2, 1945
Rebuilding Begins
The Yalta Conference
February 1945
The Big Three: FDR, Churchill, Stalin
Post-war Germany
Stalin: Divide G. into occupation zones
FDR: Needs Stalin to join the war against J. and join the U.N.
Agreement to temporary division of G. (divided into 4)
Stalin promised free elections, to aid against J. and to meet for the U.N. in the spring
The Nuremberg War Trials
International military court
Crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
24 Nazi leaders on trial
12 were sentenced to death
Individuals are responsible for their own actions - even in times of war
Occupation of Japan
Officials on trial for crimes against civilians and/or prisoners of war
Seven year occupation by U.S.
MacArthur
Economic recovery
Constitutional reforms
Section 4: The Home Front
U.S. = world's dominant economic and military power
Prosperity during the war years
Factory workers (paychecks rose)
Farmers (good weather + improved technology)
What technology?
Women:
End of the war many women lost employment
Factory work etc.
War had opened up new fields
Population Shift:
Towns with defense industries
California
Large migration out of the South
Social Adjustments
GI Bill of Rights:
Education and training for veterans
Federal loan guarantees
Homes, farms, new businesses
Discrimination and Reaction
Lt Col James Doolittle - air raid over Tokyo
Boosts morale
Moving towards Japan
("I shall return" "I have returned")
Full transcript