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GCSE Syllabus

Fitness components and skill-related factors of fitness

Oli Thorogood

on 19 April 2012

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Transcript of GCSE Syllabus

Components of fitness SPEED POWER a combination of the maximum amount of speed and
maximum amount of strength.

SPEED+STRENGTH= POWER ability to move all parts of the body quickly

Combination of:
REACTION TIME and MOVEMENT TIME STRENGTH The ability to bear weight FLEXIBILITY Range of movement
around a joint

'Suppleness' Reduces injury

Improves body posture

Makes performance
more efficient TEST: Sit and Reach Test 2 Types:

Active Stretching-
Assume a position and
hold without assistance

Passive Stretching-
Assume a position with
the aid of a partner or
apparatus TEST: Standing Broad Jump

Vertical Jump TEST: Hand-Grip
Dynometer Skill-Related Factors of Fitness AGILITY BALANCE CO-ORDINATION REACTION
TIME TIMING Principles of Training S P O R T pecificity rogression verload eversibility edium I T T n
y i
e y
e F r
y Number of
Training Sessions Amount of
Activity in a
Session Duration of
Training Session Content of
Training Session Skill Aquisition SKILL GUIDANCE FEEDBACK PRACTICE Visual Verbal Manual/Kinesthetic Basic Complex Intrinsic Extrinsic This comes from sources other than the performer themselves. Extrinsic feedback could come from.......... The Coach The Captain The Crowd Sensed or felt by
the performer while they
are performing. Known as
Kinesthesia. Simple, straight forward skills. It
is importnant to master these before
progressing to more complex skills Such as... Catching Throwing training that is particularly
suited to a sport or activity where training is increased gradually as the body adjusts to the increased demands being made on it making the body work harder in order to improve it Not to be confused with Overtraining, which is when an athlete trains beyond their capacity to recover the effects of training are lost if a sedentary period occurs a lack of variety in training can make it tedious and decrease motivation GCSE SPORT SCIENCE: AQA STATIC DYNAMIC ability to maintain
a given posture in static
and dynamic conditions,
speed and maximum strength TEST:
Broad Jump TEST:
Sit and
Reach ability to change direction at speed TEST: Illinois Agility Test ability to link parts of movement into one efficient smooth movement, and control the body during physical activity TEST: Alternate Hand Throw ability to coincide movements in relation to external factors Combines: Decision Making,
Reaction Time and Co-ordination time taken for body of body part to respond to a stimulus Simple Reaction Time: reaction to something as it happens Choice Reaction Time: when someone sizes up a situation and decides when to react SIMPLE CHOICE take a long time to learn and perfect. Involves
high levels of CONTROL and COORDINATION.
May be unique to an activity Such as... Hurdles
Pole Vault Seeing a demonstration Explanation of the skills components. Could also be highlighting areas for improvement Performer is physically guided through the skill Whole Part Fixed Varied complete skill carried out with all
aspects of performance covered specific aspects of performance are practiced, such as a specific skill a set section or aspect is concentrated upon a combination of whole,
fixed and varied practice Training and Skills: Anatomy and Physiology: The Skeletal System Joints Connective Tissues Ligaments Tendons Cartilage Join BONE to BONE Join MUSCLE to BONE Strong, non-elastic cords Bands of fibre that help
to keep the joint stable Acts as a buffer to prevent friction in the joint Tough, flexible tissue CONDYLOID GLIDING
BALL AND SOCKET Wrist Metacarpal-phalageal Hip, Shoulder HINGE Elbow, Knee Apects of Training specific aspects and phases of a
training session WARM-UP FITNESS/SKILLS GAME PLAY COOL DOWN Prepare the body: Dynamic Stretches: Psychologically Physiologically-
increase heart rate and breathing
with a gentle jog Stretches specific muscle
groups that are to be used
in the exercise.
Increases mobility.
Reduces injury risk. Fitness: Skills: train aspects of
fitness most appropriate to
your physical activity practice the skills
required for your sport,
i.e, backs practice rugby moves Conditioned Games: Small sided games
to put skills into
practice Match Play: Team comes together
and plays a full sided
match Light Exercise: Exercise gradually reduces
to help with recovery,
by removing harmful waste
products such as Lactic Acid Stretching: Stretches whilst warm
keeps the blood flow going
to working muscles and
increases flexibility SADDLE Thumb PIVOT Neck Bones Long Bones Radius Ulna Humerus Femur Tibia Fibula Short Bones Phalanges Flat Bones Patella Pelvis Clavicle Ribcage Sternum Scapula Irregular Bones Tarsals Carpals V
e Functions of the Skeletal System Movement at joints Support for muscles and vital organs Protection for example, the skull protecting the brain Shape for maintaining or basic body shape Blood-cell
Production in the bone marrow Types of Joint Freely Moveable- most of these
come under SYNOVIAL. This is where
bony surfaces are covered by cartilage,
connected by ligaments with a joint
cavity containing synovial fluid Slightly Moveable- such as the
vertebrae in the spine Immovable- No movement can occur,
such as the bones in the skull Movement Flexion Decreasing the angle
at a joint Extension Increasing the angle
at a joint Abduction Movement of a bone
or limb away from the
midline of the body Adduction Movement of a bone
or limb towards the
midline of the body External Rotation Movement away from
the centre line of the body The support function of the skeleton
is where the framework of the skeleton
connects to the muscles. This allows
articulation to take place, which is
a moveable joint between inflexible parts
of the body The Muscular System Skeletal Muscle Voluntary Muscles under the performers conscious control and only move through conscious effort
Origin Insertion Agonist start of the muscle,
attached to the
FIXED bone end of the muscle,
attached to the
MOVING bone muscle that initially
contracts to start a
movement (Prime Mover) Cardiac Muscles Involuntary Muscles form of involuntary muscles that
work automatically and constantly.
Only found in walls of HEART, and keep
it beating constantly muscles that you cannot control.
Found in the walls of the INTESTINE
and in BLOOD VESSELS. Continous
contractions allow crucial body functions
to continue Muscular Contractions Flexors Extensors Adductors Abductors the muscles that bend a limb at a joint by contracting the muscles that work with and against the flexors and that straighten a limb at a joint by contracting the muscles that move a limb towards the body paired muscles that move a limb away from the body Concentric Contraction when the muscle contracts and SHORTENS. For Example, the Bicep in the upward phase of a bicep curl Eccentric Contraction when the muscle contracts and LENGTHENS. For Example, the Tricep in the upward phase of a bicep curl Minority Groups: Disability Four Catergories Physical Mental Permenant Temporary Ellie Symmonds Ellie won GOLD in the 100m and
400m swimming at the 2008
Summer Paralympics in Bejing Ellie won Young Sports Personality
of the Year 2008 and has an MBE Ellie has achondroplasia and swims
in the S6 disability catergory Oscar 'Blade Runner' Pistorius is the
World Record Holder in the 100m,
200m and 400m (T44 catergory) Oscar is a double amputee and runs
with the aid of Cheetah Flex Foot,
Carbon Fibre Transtibial Artificial Limbs In 2007, Oscar competed
in a competition for able-bodied
athletes. This prompted comments
that he had an unfair advantage Oscar Pistorius David Weir David won his 3rd London Marathon
in a row (4 in total), in 2008.
In the same year he won 4 medals
(2 GOLD, 2 SILVER) at the Bejing Summer Paralympics David holds the British track records
for 5,000m, and road rocords for 10km, half marathon and marathon PARALYMIC GAMES Held every 4 years, immediately after the Olympic Games 20 different events Sports are adapted, such as basketball where the hoop heights are the same but rules are adapted, eg, travelling Disability classifications exist for all activities, relating to the physical demands of that sport. Such as, T for Track
and F for field. This makes competition FAIR Adapted equipment, used by the deaf, visually impaired
and blind. Such as Audible balls for Football Inclusion: policy that noone should
experience barriers to learning as a result of their
disability, heritage, age, gender, ethnicity, race,
culture, sexual orientation, educational need Facilities: it is a legal requirement that all facilities cater for the disabled
in the following ways- Access: doors and doorways must be wide enough
to allow wheelchair entry Parking: disabled bays must be marked and made available Provision: lifts must allow acces to upper floors,
disabled toilets must be available, and there must be specific
activities, clubs or classes that are suited to the disabled Gender Physical Differences Physique Power Hormones Maturity Body shape and size differ Women: Flatter, broader pelvis.
Smaller lungs and heart.
Higher percentage body fat,
25 % compared to 15% in men. Muscle strength differs Women: have less muscle mass,
therefore maximal strength tests
can have 40-50% differences. Due
to this, females are more flexible. Maturation rates differ, as
females mature faster than males Competition between males and females
can be fair until aged 11. After this, sport
tends to be single sex Females suffer a hormone
imbalance due to menstruation Males tend to be less affected by chemical
substance changes within their bodies These differences do not always mean females are at a disadvantage, they can often compete on equal terms with males (eg, equestrian events).
Advantages with less weight and greater flexibility, females find gymnastic events easier. Disadvantages when competing in sports that require strength and power, such as rugby. Percieved Differences discrimination has mean that females are sometimes seen as the 'weaker sex',
and therefore did not get the same opportunities as men. They could not compete
in certian events (800m) and some sports were seen as male only (football). Age Physical Activity
and Differences
with Age Flexibility Strength Oxygen Capacity Skill Level Recovery High in our teens but
decreases with age

Increase in weight can also decrease
the range of movement around a joint Maximal strength is not achieved
until young people are fully grown

Weight training is not advised until this point

Strength decreases after our peak, as well get older The reduces with age as the heart become less effective

Arteries lose elasticity, which increases blood pressure
and reduces blood flow to the working muscles

This affects our recovery time and therefore training becomes harder Age and expericence can improve our skill level

Growth and increase strength also helps develop our skills

Skills are perfected and become more refined Injuries become harder to recover from as age increases

Disorders become prevelant, such as Arthritus

There becomes a build up of wear and tear, such as Stress fractures
Age Divisions School level sport requires age divisions
for saftey reasons. Pupils play in
age group team until they reach
senior level, and have fully developed In certain sports, it is possible
for younger performers to compete
against older competitiors.

These athletes may have matured faster,
as age does not affect everyone in the
same way. For example: Laura Robson competed, and won
the U18 wimbledon title at the age of 14. Physique Somatotypes Certain body types are suited
to different sports/activities Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorph Characterised by:
Thin and Lean
Long arms and Legs
Little fat stores
Narrow Shoulders, hips and chest Characterised by:
Large body frame
High Percentage body fat
Wide hips but narrow shoulders
Low centre of gravity
Wider from front to back than side to side Characterised by:
Muscular physique
Low percentage body fat
Strong arms and legs
Wide shoulders and narrow hips
Narrow from front to back
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