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Transcript of Kosovo
of the former Yugoslavia Social Factors Historic Factors Geographic Factors Political Factors *Yugoslavia underwent an economic crisis
in 1969 that widened the gap between the rich north and poor south. *Their economic weakness has produced a thriving black economy in which they smuggle cement, cigarettes and petrol *They have a debt of 1.264 billion U.S. dollars that is serviced by Serbia *Their judicial system is compossed of a supreme court, subordinate courts, a constitutional court, and an independent prosecutorial institution. *Their courts are administered by the Kosovo judicial court *On the 17th of February 2008, the republic of Kosovo declared independence, and since then has become a member of the IMF and the World Bank *Clashes occured between ethnic Serbs in northern Kosovo and the republic of Kosovo, when Kosovo police crossed into the Serb controlled municipalities of north Kosovo in an attempt to control border crossings. *Kosovo is very rich in natural resources *Their unemployment rate is above 45% Prishtina, Kosovo's capital city. "NEWBORN" Obelisk, erected
February 17, 2008, to commemorate
Kosovo's Independence. *Kosovo's new constitution reserves
10 seats in parliament for Serbians, and
10 for other minority groups of its 120
seat system. *A referendum held in North Kosovo in February
2012 asked people: "Do you accept the institutions of the so-called Republic of Kosovo?"
*Of 35000 eligible voters, 75% voted, for a total of 26593 votes cast, 69 people answered "yes." *Kosovo became controlled by the Kingdom
of Serbia in 1346. *In antiquity, the Kosovo area was controlled
by Rome, and later by Bulgaria. *Serbs, Albanians, and Bosnians joined forces
against Ottoman invasions in the late 14th Century. *Nevertheless, the Ottomans took over and controlled the area until the First World War. Kosovo uses the Euro although they are unauthorized by the EU to use it. They use the Euro rather than use the Serbian dinar. Tensions between the Serbian and Albanian communities in Kosovo simmered throughout the 20th century and occasionally erupted into major violence, particularly during the First Balkan War, and during World War I and World War II. *The Kingdom of Yugoslavia then took
control of Kosovo. *Yugoslavia fell in 1991, with the other communist countries. * The Republic of Yugoslavia was fully dissolved by 2006, when Serbia and Montenegro were the most recent countries to emerge, but now Kosovo wants to split as well. *91 of 193 UN member states recognize Kosovo as an independent country. Communist hardliners instituted a fierce crackdown on nationalism of all kinds, Albanian and Serbian alike. Kosovo endured a heavy secret police presence throughout most of the 1980s that ruthlessly suppressed any unauthorized nationalist manifestations, both Albanian and Serbian *Many ethnic Serbians feel that Kosovo belongs to them, because it was controlled by Serbia in the 14th century. *Serbia seeks membership with the European Union, but they are not allowed to seek candidacy until the Kosovo issue is resolved. Kosovo's Self-Determination *In 1946, Yugoslavia became a communist state, and in 1974 Kosovo became an autonomous province. Inter-ethnic tensions continued to
worsen and escalate in Kosovo throughout the 1980s. There was a perception among Serb nationalists that Serbs were being driven out of Kosovo and the Serbs tried to forcibly remove the Albanians. There were numerous riots in
Kosovo during this time. Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. It was part of Serbia in the Middle Ages. The Battle of Kosovo in 1389 against the Ottoman Empire is considered a defining moment in Serbian history
(even though they LOST!). It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century and remained under that rule for the next 5 centuries. Kosovo was incorporated into the kingdom of Serbia after the First Balkan War, and later became a province within Yugoslavia. The relations between Kosovo's ethnic Albanian and Serb populations have been hostile since the rise of nationalism in the Balkans during the 19th century, rivalry which became strong after Serbia gained Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire in 1913 and after Albania became independent in the same year Albanians are mostly Muslim, and
the Serbians are made up of mostly Orthodox Christians To summarize, the Albanians and
Serbians have been rivals since what
seems like the beginning
of mankind, and hate each other
like the Montreal Canadiens
and the Boston Bruins. Who is involved?
(90%) Kosovo Albanians - fighting for self determination
(10%) Serbian Government and ethnic Serbs - opposed to Kosovo's independence Positive effects Negative effects
- Račak massacre - the massacre of 45 Albanians by Serbian security
- During the Kosovo War over a million Albanians fled or were forced to leave, 90,000 Serbs fled, and over 11,000 deaths were reported from both Albanians and Serbs.
- In 2000 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) admitted that in the bombings on Kosovo 10 tonnes of uranium, in the form of shells was dropped. This caused significant negative effects on the environment By: Danielle, Darrelle, Jordyn, Kassi, and Evan Assessing the Impact of Nationalist Pursuits Respect for Basic Human Rights -2 Economic Prosperity 0 Personal and Cultural Fulfillment +1 Political Effectiveness -2 Thanks for watching :) So is Kosovo a country? - new sense of cultural pride Many more negative effects than positive