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Organizational Communication- Chapter 8
Transcript of Organizational Communication- Chapter 8
Conflicts and Interventions Values of Meetings To announce organizational changes and keep employees up to date.
To produce solutions and to increase the number of different solutions to organizational problems.
To gain "buy-in" or acceptance of a decision through participation.
To "cultivate members as individuals" and create cohesion. Meetings, Bloody Meetings Meetings can have a number of frustrations. Participants leave the room for outside personal business. Time wasted due to members arriving late. Meeting time changed on short notice disrupting appointments. Irrelevant meetings that don’t serve a purpose. Valuable time wasted due to discussion of personal life. Primary and
Tension Primary Tension Reasons people feel tense before a meeting. Secondary Tension Tensions that arise after the meeting starts. Procedural Tensions stem from feelings that the process of interacting in the group is unproductive.
A member or members of the group may feel that the agenda is weak or they may be dispirited because of no adherence to the agenda. Equity Perception of inequality- participants feel as if something is not fair. There are two subcategories of equity: "Social loafers" “Why am I here?” Affective Surfaces when people in a team meeting begin to dislike each other.
May be the result of residual equity, procedural, or even primary tensions. Substantive Positive type of tension called substantive conflict that surfaces because of legitimate disagreements of the subject discussed. 1.Promote creativity and therefore facilitate problem solving. 2.Promote the sharing of different ideas and therefore increase the amount of relevant information available. 3.Serve to test the strength of opposing ideas. Counterproductive
Group Tendencies Groupthink Groupthink Conformity The Asch Effect Goal Lining Refers to the tendency of groups to make decisions without considering alternatives. One member puts forth an idea and others readily agree without the advantages and disadvantages of the proposition The Asch Effect Designed as an experiment to gauge willingness to conform to clearly incorrect answers. The lone actual subject (always the last to vote) was put in the position of conforming, or disagreeing and identifying the correct answer. Goal Lining Participants see reaching the goal as the lone criterion determining quality team interaction Encourages particiopants to seek a conclusion without necessarily seeking a "Team" conclusion. Team loses potential value od discussion, creativity, and interaction. Conformity Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism "The tendency to think that our culture is superior to other cultures" Increases in diversity within the workplace can create affective tension in groups which will militate against sucessful communication. Can also create equity tensions as members that are minorities may feel as though their opinions are discounted. Problematic Agendas Inadequate Agendas 1. Provide merely an "illusion" of structure 2. The agandas are ignored Hidden Agendas - Personal and/or political objectives that are "hidden" from the group. Problematic Agendas Competition Vs Cooperation Competition Vs Cooperation Cooperation is a key to success in groups but should not be confused with conformity. Ego-involved participants can have a tendency to become competitive and fight for their opinions simply because they are theirs. Tolerating High-Level Term Abstraction Tolerating High-Level Term Abstraction (Has nothing to do with pulling teeth) High-level abstraction words are vague, low-level more concrete. High-level abstraction words lead to frustration in meetings. Interventions Buzz Groups (Not that kind!) Brainstorming & Brainwriting *Brainstorming is an idea generating intervention that involves the identification and recording of any and all ideas germane to the topic being discussed. *Brainwriting is when all individuals write down ideas and subsequently draw from their list during a brainstorming session. Nominal Group Technique
(NGT) *Attempts to avoid affective and procedural tensions. 1. Persons write down solutions to the same problem. 2. In a polling manner the leader talks with the author only to discuss and clarify the solution. 3. Solution ideas are written down on a board. 4. A vote is held. 5. The ideas that receive the most votes are then discussed and evaluated. Problem Census Members are polled initially regarding their individual perspective and perceptions of the problem. This is valuable because before a team begins to discuss a topic, the group can become relatively certain that participants are on the same page. Risk Technique Each participant is required to play the "devil's advocate" General
Procedural Model An intervention that combines many techniques previously discussed: Identify the problem Brainstorm Evaluation (Consider Buzz Groups) Selection of the best idea (Consider using risk technique) Put solution into effect (Dude, you're throwing your life away) Making Interventions Work Participant-Observers Participants Observers Members must actively participate in the intervention process. Members must also ensure that the agenda is followed. Leadership Leaders must: Plan for the meeting. Get the meeting started. Keep the discussion on track. Summarize periodically. Solicit comments from taciturn members. Curtail verbose members. Employ interventions. Conclude the meeting. Plan for the next session. Leadership Styles Authoritarian Laissez-Faire Democratic De Facto Team Reports The final end of a team interaction should be a collaborative report. Team reports: Lead to better team communication Are vital to a team's success Are often given in the form a team presentation Collective Presentations Panel Discussions Symposia Team Presentations Desired Outcomes Before delivering a report, a team should make sure that: The Introduction is clear, descriptive, inclusive, and engaging The presentation comprehensively addresses the charge and describes the response In an oral presentation, everyone should know what the other participants will be saying. Transitional statements that link sections of the report together should be carefully considered The conclusion will summarize the entire report and not just the last section Getting There: Step by Step 1. Use a modification of GPM 2. Divide Responsibilities 3. Review Outlines 4. Discuss Sequence and Transitions 5. Identify Message Style 6. Plan the introduction and the conclusion 7. Practice Individually 8. Practice the Team Presentation 9. Evaluation