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Branches of the World's Language

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Lauren Lannigan

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Branches of the World's Language

Proto Indo-European World Languages

Proto Indo-European is the unattested prehistoric parent language of the Indo-European languages. Nostratic Nostratic is hypothetical language proposed as the parent language of Afro-Asiatic, Altaic, Dravidian, Indo-European, Uralic, and perhaps other language families. Celac Indo-Iranian Italic Balto-Slavic Germanic North East West Danish Swedish Norwegian Icelandic Igothic High/Low German Dutch Frisian English Slavic Baltic West Polish East Russian Latin Sabellic Portuguese Spanish French Italian Romanian Iranian Indo-Aryan Punjabi Hindi Bengali Marathi Insular Continental Brittonic Welsh Breton Goidelic Irish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic Latin Latin: 753BC-Today
Latin is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language group, which is the first traceable language family. Some archaeologist believe that Nostratic group could have come before, but there is no written record. Latin wa originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome by the Roman Empire, but slowly diffused in to the rest of the italian peninsula. Latin was the foundation of all romance languages, but soon after it was considered a dead language. Thanks to the Roman Catholic Churches Latin was built back up and is still used today. Latin never really died out, it just evolved into Romance languages and in Europe many countries speak a form of Latin including: Portugal, Spain, Italy, Monaco, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Romania, and Moldova. Latin originates from the language family Nostratic or widely know the Proto-Indo-European. The language subfamily would be Italic and Latin alone could be considered a language group, because Latin branches off to many different languages. Romance could also be considered the language group for Latin. The Latin alphabet consists of 50 letters, some of which we might recognize, but all are pronounced differently. Latin Speaking Countries Gimbutas' Conquest Theory:
Gimbutas believed that the Kurgans were the first to start their language in Eastern Europe, around 4000 B.C. With the belief of this theory, Latin's language family could be founded by a different group changing it's history. Renfrew's Agriculture Theory:
Renfrew believed that the Indo-Europeans originated in Turkey 2,000 years before the Kurgans and moved westward along with the agricultural innovations. This theory is similar to the one all ready used to describe the language family of Latin. Sound Shift Illustration Language Replacement
Latin slowly became replaced by other romance languages, that became more popular through out Europe.
Language Divergence
Language divergence took place changing Latin into Spanish and Portigues. Hispanicization:
As Latin spread it had to adapt to the increasing number of hispanics, languages grew to fit the need of these people. Latin diverged into two different languages which were more commonly spoken, which created Latin to die off. Latin is considered a Creole Language because it has a complete structure, its own vocab, and it is used by a group of people everyday. Isogloss
When Latin was popular in Europe, you would know exactly when you were out of the Latin area because signs would change and so would the language. Even though Latin is dieing out it is still and important language in our history and can still be classified as a standard language and many of Latins divergence languages are considered Multilingual States. Esperanto
The Esperanto alphabet was based on the Latin language, using the "One sound one letter" principle. Movie Toponym:
Romans spoke Latin instead of Roman, because of the district in which they lived, Latium in Italy. In Italy there are major landmarks that also help in creating a distinctive culture to the language Latin. English The history of the English language started with three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived. English is the most widely spoken language and is spoken by 400 million people, as there first language. This is why English is used so often when communicating with people from a different language. English being a wide spread language can be a monolingual state, while being a language to a multilingual state also, and it is also the official language to many countries. English originally comes from the Nostratic, which is thought to be the first language ever used, but we don't know for sure, for it came before written history. Slowly, it diffused into Proto-Indo-European which is the base language family of English. The language group of English is Germanic and as that grew it began to break into smaller subfamilies. West Germanic is the subfamily of English. English alphabet Gimbutas' Conquest Theory:
This theory gave prof to a different beginning of language. Gimnutas believed that the Kurgans were the first to start their language in Eastern Europe, around 4000 B.C. With the belief of this theory, the English language family could have been founded by a different group changing it's history. Renfrew's Agriculture Theory:
Renfrew believed that the Indo-Europeans originated in Turkey 2,000 years before the Kurgans and moved westward along with the agricultural innovations. This theory is similar to the one all ready used to describe the language family of English. Between the two dialects of English there is many differences in vocabulary and spelling, because of the new objects that they discovered and the different people that called that area home. U.S. English included moose, raccoon, and canoe in there new vocabulary, because the Indians exposed them to these new objects. While, back in England an elevator was called a lift, and a flashlight was called a torch. Hispanicization:
With the incressing number of hispanics entering the U.S. they have adapted English to fit there needs. That is how we get language convergence, when one language (Spanish) combines with another language (English) to create a different language, that benefits them. Lingua Franca:
The common language for international trade is English, they learn English to communicate. Pidgin:
To communicate people learn a simpler form of English to understand. They learn grammar rules and words of Lingua Franca (no native speakers). Creole:
British colonies, following the great expansion of British naval military power and trade in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Dialects differ in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar from each other. There are many different dialects for English, located all around the world, but the most common to use are the; British, American, and Canadian English. Under each broad dialect there are many regional dialects. Since English is a world-Wide Language used upon many people there are obstacles that interrupt the language causing the dialects to be different. An isogloss is a line drawn on a map around the area in which a specific feature can be found. In the U.S. the North and South are different because of the features and characteristics that each area has. The boundaries of English in U.S also can be split, so the country is in three major dialects, the Appalachian Mountains and the boundary that runs across Pennsylvania. Government impact on English:
All formal written documents are in English and the governments all over the world made it an Official Language of 50 plus countries. English Toponym:
Many of the major landmarks in the U.S. can be considered toponyms. The Rocky Mountains fit under the discriptive section of toponyms, and West Indies are not west of the Indies and are not the Indies, so they are mistaken toponyms. By: Lauren Lannigan Convergence Divergence Spanish
English Spanglish English British
American English
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