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Additive Manufacturing - 3D Printing Emerging Technologies

Additive Manufacturing Overview
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laura PV

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Additive Manufacturing - 3D Printing Emerging Technologies

An Initiative of Fuel Systems Business Unit Materials Science Engineering Team
By:Laura Pelaez Vigna Additive Manufacturing:
3D Printing Emerging Technologies The Art Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing is the process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digitally designed models. It one of the most moving emergent technologies available to the global industry today. Objects are created by laying down successive layers of materials; It is usually performed by a 3D printer, using digital technology(CAD/animation modeling software). The goal of this machines are to supply with rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, in order to get provide cost and production efficiency. In Additive Manufacturing, component designs are transformed, by the modeling software, into thin, virtual, horizontal cross-sections and created successive layers until a fully computerized model is created. After the printer reads in data from the digital model, it lays down successive layers of liquid, powder or sheet material until building up the model. The layers are joined/fused automatically so as to create the final shape. The primary advantage of this technology is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric design. History and Present Day 1980s: Early patents where released - very large, expensive, and highly limited on production. Research continued for the next 10 to 12 years. Mid 1980s: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) was developed and patented by Dr. Carl Deckard at University of Texas at Austin, under DARPA sponsorship. - Advent of Stereolitography. Late 1980s: Fused Deposition Modeling was developed by S. Scott Crump.
1990s: Fused Deposition Modeling was commercialized. 1995: "3D Printing" was established when Jim Bredt and Tim Anderson (Graduate Students) modified an Inkjet Printer to extrude a binding solution onto a bed of powder, rather ink into paper; The patent led to the creation of modern 3D Printing. 1995-Present Day: According to David G. Alexander, representative at Pratt&Whitney: "Within the next 10-15 years additive Manufacturing should become an integral component of available manufacturing processes for metallic parts, now represented primarily by forging, casting and machining. Implementation of additive manufacturing deposition technologies can influence three areas - fabrication cost, reduction in schedule and component performance." Technologies - Metallurgy Approach Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Technique that uses high power laser (e.i. carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of plastic, metal, ceramic or glass powders into a 3D shape mass. SLS fuses the powder by scanning cross-sections generated from 3D digital designs(CAD or scan data) on a surface of a powder tray. After each cross-section is scanned, the powder bed is lowered by one layer of a specific thickness (16-100 micrometers). Layers of materials are applied on top of the other until the part/component is completed. Up to 100% density can be achieved with material properties comparable to those from regular manufacturing methods. Laser Assessment:
-SLS usually uses Pulsed Laser (don't work with a continuous mode, the optical power appears in pulses of some duration at some repetition rate), because finished part/components density depends on peak laser power.
-SLS machines - SLS Systems - preheats bulk powder material in the powder bed somewhat below its melting point, in order to make it easier for the laser to raise temperatures of the selected areas the rest of the way to the melting point. The powders used by these machines typically are:
Single-component powder (such as direct metal sintering, the laser only melts the outer surface of the particles - surface melting - where the solid nono-melted cores are fused to each other and to the previous layer.)
Two-component powders (coated powder or powder mixtures) Comparison with other Additive Manufacturing Methods:
SLS can produce parts from:
Polymers such as nylons (neat, glass-filled, or with other fillers) or polystyrene
Metals such as steel, titanium, alloy mixtures, composites and green sand

Physical Process:
Full melting
Partial Melting
Liquid-Phase Sintering

Objective and Facts: Large numbers of parts can be packed within the powder bed, which allows very high productivity. SLS does not require support structures because the part being produced is surrounded by unsintered powder all the time. Direct Metal Laser Sintering Metal fabrication technology developed by EOS (Munich, Germany), involving 3D CAD modeling. As SLS, the work begins after the “build file” is scanned by the DMLS system and the layers of materials are dispensed in the machines. These use a high-powered 200 watt Yb-Fiber optic laser. The process:
The metal powder fuses into solid parts when focusing the laser beam to melting (the thickness of the layers is typically 20 micrometers, which alloys highly complex geometries to be created). It is approved that DMLS is a net-shape process – the parts reflect high accuracy, outstanding surface quality and excellent mechanical properties.
- Highly beneficial due to speed of production, since no tooling is required (parts are built in a matter of hours)
Can use most alloys
- Possible to design internal features and passages that could not be cast or machined.
- Complex geometries and assemblies with multiple components can be acquired, with a cost effective assembly.
- Does not require castings (convenient for short production runs)
- Most features are machined in the x and y axis, as the material is laid down in layers; feature tolerances are well managed.

Constraints:
- Feature details, surface finish, and print through error in the z axis are factors to be considered. Nevertheless, surfaces usually have to be polished to achieve smooth finishes.
- For production tooling, material density of a finished part or insert should be addressed prior to use (i.e. in injection molding inserts, surface imperfections will cause imperfections in the plastic part, and the inserts will have to mate with the base of the mold with temperature and surface to prevent problems)
- Metallic support structure removal and post processing of the part requires the use of EDM and/or grinding machines with the same level of accuracy provided by the rapid prototyping machine. Materials:
- 17-4 and 15-5 Stainless steel
- Maraging steel
- Cobalt chromium
- Iconel 625 and 718
- Titanium Ti6Alv4
- Almost any alloy metal can be used in the process once fully developed and validated Other Technologies Powder Beds - Manufacturer Comparison Companies - Services and Materials Service: DMLS - Additive Metal Manufacturing

Materials: *Material properties: 99.5% dense super alloys with near wrought properties.
Cobalt Chromium*
Inconel 718*
Inconel 625*
Titanium-6Al-4V
Titanium-6Al-4V ELI
Aluminum 6061-T6
Stainless 316L
Stainless 17-4 PH
Stainless 15-5 PH
EOS Stainless GP1
Aluminum AlSi10Mg
Maraging Steel MS1
EOS Direct Metal 20

http://www.morristech.com/Technologies/?cat=DMLS Service: Additive Metal Manufacturing

Materials: * LayerWise achieves a homogeneous micro structure with a relative density of up to 99.98%, for an increasing number of metals and alloys. Service: *Metal powder for additive manufacturing
Gas atomized metal powder specially designed for additive manufacturing (rapid prototyping) for applications within, for example, the aerospace, medical and rapid tooling areas. Mojo Print Pack Includes: *for $185*/ month Lease
•Mojo 3D Printer
•Print Wizard & Control Panel Software
•WaveWash 55 Support Cleaning System
•Start-up Kit, including:
Starter QuickPack Print Engine of ivory ABSplus modeling material
Starter QuickPack Print Engine of support material
Ecoworks tablets
Modeling bases and more Uprint SE

Model material:
ABSplus in ivory

Build size:
203 x 152 x 152 mm (8 x 6 x 6 in)

Layer thickness:
0.254 mm (0.010 in)

Workstation compatibility:
Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7

Network connectivity:
Ethernet TCP/IP 10/100 base T
Size and weight:
(uPrint SE 3D Printer and One Material Bay)
635(w) x 660(d) x 787(h) mm (25 x 26 x 31 in)
76 kg (168 lbs)

(uPrint SE 3D Printer and Two Material Bays)
635(w) x 660(d) x 940(h) mm (25 x 26 x 37 in)
94 kg (206 lbs)

Power requirements:
100-127 VAC 50/60 Hz, minimum 15A dedicated circuit, or
220-240 VAC 50/60 Hz, minimum 7A dedicated circuit

Regulatory compliance:
CE / ETL / RoHS / WEEE

Special facility requirements:
None UPrint SE Plus

Model material:
ABSplus in white, ivory, red, blue, black, gray, nectarine, florescent yellow & olive green

Build size:
203 x 203 x 152 mm (8 x 8 x 6 in)

Layer thickness:
0.254 mm (0.010 in)
0.330 mm (0.013 in)

Workstation compatibility:
Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7

Network connectivity:
Ethernet TCP/IP 10/100 base T Size and weight:
(uPrint SE Plus 3D Printer and One Material Bay)
635(w) x 660(d) x 787(h) mm (25 x 26 x 31 in)
76 kg (168 lbs)

(uPrint SE Plus 3D Printer and Two Material Bays)
635(w) x 660(d) x 940(h) mm (25 x 26 x 37 in)
94 kg (206 lbs)

Power requirements:
100-127 VAC 50/60 Hz, minimum 15A dedicated circuit, or
220-240 VAC 50/60 Hz, minimum 7A dedicated circuit

Regulatory compliance:
CE / ETL / RoHS / WEEE

Special facility requirements:
None WaveWash Support Cleaning System

Size and weight:
48.33 (w) x 43.18 (d) x 43.85 (h) cm, (18.24 x 17 x 17.25 in)
16.4 kg (36 lbs)

Capacity:
Basket Size:
203 x 203 x 152 mm (8 x 8 x 6 in)

Fill Levels:
7.57 L (2 gal) and 15.14 L (4gal)

Power requirements:
100-240 VAC, 50/60Hz 1200W Ecological:
Complies with European Union WEEE and RoHS Directives. Ecoworks pH level of 10 meets most worldwide wastewater requirements.*

Safety standards:
WaveWash is CE and cETLus certified. Elite 3D Printer
Elite 3D Printer Specifications

Price:
3D Printer: $29,900*

3D Print Pack: $31,900*

Lease: $560/mo.*

Model material:
P430 ABSplus in ivory, white, black, red, olive green, nectarine, fluorescent yellow, blue or gray.

Support material:
SR-30 Soluble Support Technology (SST)

Build Size:
203 x 203 x 305 mm (8 x 8 x 12 in)

Layer thickness:
.178 mm (.007 in), or .254 mm (.010 in)

Workstation compatibility:
Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7 Network connectivity:
Ethernet TCP/IP 10/100Base-T

Size and weight:
838 x 737 x 1143 mm (33 x 29 x 45 in)
148 kg (326 lbs)

Power requirements:
Dimension 3D Printer:

110-120 VAC, 60 Hz, 15A minimum dedicated circuit
or 220-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 7A minimum dedicated circuit

SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System:

100-120 VAC, 15A, 60 Hz
or 220-240 VAC, 10A, 50 Hz

Regulatory compliance:
Dimension 3D Printer:

CE / ETL

SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System:

CE

Special facility requirements:
None Service: Machines - 3D Printers and 3D Production Systems, only work with thermoplastics.

Mojo 3D Printer


UPrint



Dimension 3D Printers



Fortus 3D Production Systems 1200es 3D Printer Series
3D Printer Specifications
Price:

SST 1200es:
3D Printer: $32,900*

Print Pack: $34,900*

Lease: $610/mo.*


BST 1200es:
3D Printer: $24,900*

Model material:
P430 ABSplus in ivory, white, black, red, olive green, nectarine, fluorescent yellow, blue or gray.

Support material:
SR-30 Soluble Support Technology (SST) or Breakaway Support Technology (BST)

Build Size:
254 x 254 x 305 mm (10 x 10 x 12 inches)

Layer Thickness:
.254 mm (.010 in), or .33 mm. (.013 in)

Workstation Compatibility:
Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7

Network Connectivity:
Ethernet TCP/IP 10/100Base-T
Size and Weight:
838 x 737 x 1143 mm (33 x 29 x 45 in)
148 kg (326 lbs)

SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System:
41 x 48 x 67 cm (16 x 19 x 26.5 in)

30.25 kg (66.7 lbs)

Maximum Size Part(s): 254 x 254 x 305 mm
(10 x 10 x 12 in)

Volume Capacity: 31.5 L (8.3 gallons)

Power Requirements:
Dimension 3D Printer:

110-120 VAC, 60 Hz, 15A minimum dedicated circuit
or 220-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 7A minimum dedicated circuit.

SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System:

100-120 VAC, 15A, 60 Hz
or 220-240 VAC, 10A, 50 Hz

Regulatory Compliance:
Dimension 3D Printer:

CE / ETL

SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System:

CE

Special facility requirements:
None Package Includes:
•Dimension SST 1200es 3D Printer
•SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System
•Startup Supply of Materials Package Includes:
•Dimension Elite 3D Printer
•SCA-1200 Support Cleaning System
•Startup Supply of Materials •Low-alloy steels

•Master alloys

•MCrAlY alloys

•Nickel alloys •Austenitic Stainless Steel

•Duplex and special stainless steels

•Ferritic stainless steels

•Martensitic stainless steels

•Precipitation hardening stainless steels

•Binary alloys

•Cobalt alloys

•Copper alloys

•Diamond catalyst alloys

•High-speed and Tool steels USA Sandvik
Aliso Viejo, Sandvik Osprey Ltd.
Phone: (201) 315 65 44
1 877 556 6324
26895 Aliso Creek Road, Suite B703
Aliso Viejo, CA.
92656 3DSYSTEMS Service:

Applications:
• Functional testing of productionquality
prototypes
• Economical manufacturing of
organic or highly complex
geometries
• Rapid low-volume manufacturing
of metal parts

• Examples:
• Custom medical implants
• Lightweight aerospace and
motorsports parts
• Efficient heat sinks
• Injection mold inserts with
conformal cooling channels
• Dental caps, crowns Features
• Multiple build volumes available
• Vacuum evacuation with Argon gas
recharge
• Reliable powder re-coating system
• Multiple laser options
• Easy to remove support structures
• Advanced digital scanning system
• Heated build platform

Benefits
• Excellent surface finish and reduced
finishing time
• High definition features
• Fine geometries
• Tight tolerances
• Fast build speeds
• Superior mechanical properties
• Parts from a variety of steel,
aluminum and titanium alloys USA/NORTH AMERICA
EOS of North America Inc.
28970 Cabot Drive
Suite 700
Novi, MI 48377-2978
USA

Mr. Andrew Snow
Phone +1-248-306-0143
Fax +1 248 306 02 98
andy.snow@eos.info Service:
EOS systems distinguish themselves by ergonomic peripheral devices and a high degree of automation. Thus, they ensure maximum user friendliness, optimal utilization of machine capacity, and excellent integration into any industrial environment.

Materials
EOS systems are able to process different materials, for example on the basis of polymers, metals, or foundry sand. They offer a broad spectrum of applications.

Software
Furthermore, EOS offers different software packages for the preparation of 3D CAD data. They include EOSPACE, which automatically places parts in a space-saving way in the build envelope. Consequently, the software guarantees maximum utilization of the machine's capacity. At the same time, it minimizes the required building height. Thus, laser-sintering becomes an economical production method for your series production. Mrs. Jessica Nehro
Phone +1-248-306-8104
Fax +1-248-306-0298
jessica.nehro@eos.info ***E-Manufacturing target market of importance: Automotive ( The most important arguments in favour are: cost and materials savings, limitless design possibilities, the reduction or even the end of tooling and storage costs, and fast production. Laser-sintering technology also offers Formula 1 (for example Toyota and Williams F1) decisive advantages, because laser-sintered parts are not only quicker, easier and cheaper to produce but can fulfil specific and aerodynamic requirements.) C&A Tool Engineering, Inc.

4100 North U.S. 33
P.O. Box 94
Churubusco, Indiana 46723
Tel: 260.693.2167
Fax: 260.693.3633 The University of Louisville has been assisting industrial users with its Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) since 1993, when it became the first US university to buy and operate Selective Laser Sintering equipment. EOSINT M270:

Build Volume
250W CO2 Laser
Supports Required
20 micron layer thickness
Materials

Metals - Stainless Steal, Cobalt Chromium, Titanium Areas of Research

Laser Sintering:
High Temperature Materials
Process Characterization
Material Quality and Recycling Process Control
Direct Digital Manufacturing

Research Contacts:
Tim Gornet
(502) 852-0714
tim.gornet@louisville.edu



Dr. Thomas Starr Advantages Rapid Deployment: When the component design is completed, manufacturing can begin immediately. (Instead of waiting 6-12 weeks to complete tooling design and construction, CAD data can be exported as an STL file and begin production. Low Capital Expenditure: Eliminating tooling reduces time-to-market as well as costs of manufacturing. Investments such as new manufacturing lines, assembly lines or specialized manufacturing equipment may be avoided or minimized.
** By reducing initial outlay, cash flows can be protected, new products can be funded and products for markets with low annual demand are justifiable. Unlimited Complexity: High performance is promoted by AM - At this point, advances have made it possible for it to produce complex geometries freely. Also, the time to manufacture a complex part is no different than that for a simple design. Design constraints from previously used manufacturing methods no longer take place; which means it promotes product innovation. "Freedom of Design". Freedom to Redesign: a component may be revised without added manufacturing expense or production delay. In contrast to traditional manufacturing methods, the designs in AM never get "frozen". Part Consolidation: The ideal design for assembly is one that completely eliminates assembly by consolidating every component in a subassembly into one sole component, decreasing the possibilities of mistakes. Gaines are discovered when considering the impacts on supply chain management, production scheduling, and inventory control. Short-run Manufacturing: Economic order quantities, capacity planning, scheduling, tear-down and set-up ease, since AM provides with undetermined production quantities. Innovation: Engineers are granted the freedom of design for continuous testing, assuring accuracy, precision, and repeatability in matter of hours, and in house. Costs
125 System: $550k
250 System: $650k Contact:
Paul Miller
District Manager - Central Region
3D Systems
803-554-3590
millerp@3dsystems.com Industry Targets Considerations Production in Low Quantities: It is not a high volume manufacturing process; production quantities range from 1 to 10,000 units per year. Besides, the production quantity will vary depending of the size of the component. Many dental labs use DMLS from EOS for the production of coping for crowns and bridges,
Fastest growing market in AM. Dentistry The production of 3D circuits (function similar to traditional printed circuit boards, but they wrap around the contours of the products) have been demonstrated by Sandia National and University of Texas at El Paso. Electronics










Traditional parts are of high value, complex, and produced in low volumes. Among them are lightweight gear and armor for soldiers, portable power units, and communications devices.
Advancements expected in 10-12 years: be able to launch the production of spare parts in remote locations, mobile parts hospital, and legacy parts such as those needed for the B-52 aircraft. Military Toys: with this technology, now a days young kids can manufacture their own creations at home. Designs can be downloaded from webpages of action figures, etc.

Food: this $13 billion industry, any product that can be extruded through a syringe is possible. Jewelry: designs made in titanium alloys. Similarly, it is possible to laser sinter gold alloys.

Game Avatars: it is believed video games could drive the development of AM Systems.

Collectables: a wide variety of consumer products (plastic/metal sculpture, furniture, lighting designs, home accessories, etc.) are achievable due to the freedom of design. Miscellaneous Applied to medical implant design and manufacturing, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.
Walter Reed Army Medical Center has produced 37 cranial implants using electron bean melting (AM process from Arcam of Sweden) Biomedical Industry Essentially needs lightweight, strong and electrically conductive parts.
Successfully overcame challenge: develop AM plastics and metals, fulfilling testing standards, to ensure quality/consistency of leading aerospace manufacturers ( Describes Stein – German aerospace manufacturers).
Turbine blades made by DMLS from EOS. Aerospace Industry Bentley and Rover stated the feasibility AM provides to production of small, complex cars.
Helmet designs for motorsports industry will be greatly improved. Automotive and Motorsport Industry Cooling Channels for Tooling Inserts: Capability of producing uniform cooling channels, because the technique provides structured parts. Output Qualities: Part-to-part repeatability is still in process of improvement, there is a potential dimensional variance from run to run on the systems. To Be Proved 1. Production of parts from the historically used Steel Alloys in Fuel Systems,

2. Surface Quality (Roughness) of the parts made by the determined steels,

3. Achievement of full density,

4. Dimensional Accuracy (Impact of shrinkage of particles due to sintering. Solid Concepts Inc. is a supplier of rapid prototyping, direct digital manufacturing, tooling and injection molding services. EOSINT M 280: $680K (Direct Metal Laser Sintering, DMLSä, solution. Build platform is 9.85 x 9.85 x 12.8 inches. The system is standard with a 200W laser. An optional 400W laser is available for an upgrade of approximately $50K).

EOSINT P 110: $250K (Also referred to at the FORMIGA, this is EOS compact plastics solution. Build platform is 7.9 x 9.8 x 13 inches).

EOSINT P 395: $400K (EOS mid-range plastics solution. Build platform is 13 x 13 x 24 inches).

EOSINT P 760: $900K (Large frame EOS plastics system, equipped with two lasers. Build platform is 27.5 x 15 x 22 inches).

EOSINT P 800: $1.4M (High-temperature machine for producing PEEK parts. The build platform is equivalent to the P 760 at 27.5 x 15 x 22 inches).

EOSINT S 750: $1.2M (EOS sand solution running croning sand). Cost Reduction-Testimonies
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