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Communism and the Cold War

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Ashley Leyba

on 8 April 2016

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Transcript of Communism and the Cold War

Post-WWII
"Iron Curtain" falls in Europe
Competing Ideologies

Questions to Consider
What caused the various communist revolutions?

What are the primary tenets of communism?

C&C the different ways communism is implemented.

Identify key moments in the Cold War
Russian Revolution (1917)
Causes
WWI
Consistently defeated by Germany
Tsar's wife, Alexandria running things in Russia

Two Revolutions
February Revolution: Begins with women protesting, leads to general unrest, Tsar abdicates
October Revolution: Bolsheviks
Great Purge (1936-1939)
Stalin attempts to eliminate political opposition
Leading Bolsheviks executed or sent to labor camps (gulags)
50% of military officers purged
10-20 million killed
A Fading Communism: China
Deng Xiaoping takes over after Mao's death
Instituted modernization efforts, which stabilize China
Technically maintain communism, but more open to western ideas
Tiananmen Square Massacre
1989: 100,000 students protest for more reform
Deng Xiaoping orders troops to crush the protest
Broadcast live on tv
Expansion of the Cold War
Arms Race
Brinkmanship
Space Race
Sputnik I (1957)
Global Containment
Eisenhower Doctrine: Country could request US aid if threatened by someone else (i.e. Soviets)
Proxy Wars
Latin America
Africa
Communism and the Cold War
Russia Under the Bolsheviks
Immediate Reforms
All farmland distributed to peasants
Control of factories given to workers
Withdrew from WWI

Ignites a Civil War

Lenin
Allows limited capitalist reforms to support agricultural and industrial development
Dies in 1924
Stalin
Wants traditional communist state

Collectivization
Eliminate private farms in favor of collectives
BAD--kills millions of peasants

Initiates Five Year Plans (1928)
Focuses on industrialization and ridiculously high production quotas
Workers who don't meet quotas were imprisoned or shot

USSR
US & Western Europe
Command economy
Dictatorship
Warsaw Pact
Comintern
Gain global influence
Acquire natural resources
Capitalism (free market)
Democracy
NATO
Containment
Gain global influence
Acquire natural resources
Cold War: East Asia
Meanwhile, in China...
REVIEW: Sun Yatsen is leader of Republic of China after collapse of the Qing
Succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek in 1925
Split b/t Guomindang and Communists in 1927
Long March (1934-1935)
Communist Revolution of 1949
(People's Rep. of China)
Mao Zedong
Offered solutions to China's socio-economic probs
Land reform
Education
Urban and rural healthcare
Communist China
Mao's early reforms:
Soviet-style 5 year plans
Collectivize farms
Hundred Flowers Movement (1957)
Openly express ideas
Doesn't last long
Great Leap Forward (1958)
Creates large ag communes
Widespread famine due to crop failure
Program discontinued in 1961
Cultural Revolution (1966-1968)
Red Guard
Goal: Equality b/t peasants and workers
Farmers as heroes of revolution
Intellectuals/artists killed or "purified"
Korean War (1950-1953)
Ruled by Japan from 1910-end of WWII
After WWII, two separate gov'ts set up
North Korean forces (aided by USSR and China) invade South Korea (supported by UN and US)
DMZ at 38th parallel


Japan
Heavy US involvement in rebuilding efforts
Scared of Communist influence
Cold War: Southeast Asia
Vietnam War
Ho Chi Minh and Viet Minh defeat France in 1954
Divide Vietnam into 2
US supports South Vietnam until 1973
North Vietnam unites country in 1975

Cambodia
Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot
Cambodian genocide
Self-sufficiency, agricultural "reform"

Cold War: Congo
Congo gains independence from Belgium in 1960
Patrice Lumumba as first PM
A week later, Belgium changes its mind...
Lumumba asks US for help (they say no)
Turns to USSR
CIA stages a coup (1960)
Lumumba arrested and executed
Mobutu Sese Seko becomes president
CW in Congo begins in 1997
Mobutu expelled
New Pres= Lauren + Kabila
Cold War: Latin America
US attempted to overthrow countries that attempted to go Communist
Cuba
Cuban Revolution (1959)
Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Nicaragua
US supports contras (favored capitalism) instead of Sandinistas
End of the Cold War
Destalinization
Nikita Khrushchev
Détente
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
First major nuclear arms treaty signed in 1972
Nixon visits China in 1972
Helsinki Accords (1975)
No political boundaries should be determined by force
Paved way for dialogue b/t USSR and US

Reforms and Revolution
Mikhail Gorbachev begins series of reforms in 1985
Glasnost
Opening to criticsm
Perestroika
Free market reforms
Nuclear arms agreements with Reagan

Major revolutions across Eastern Europe begin in 1989
Berlin Wall falls in November, 1989
German reunification in 1990
Full transcript