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Chapter 29, Section 4: A Flawed Peace
Transcript of Chapter 29, Section 4: A Flawed Peace
World War One is over...
On January 18, 1919 a conference is held to establish the terms of the peace
It is held at the
Palace of Versailles
, outside of Paris
The allies take over a year to debate the treaty
The treaty becomes known as The
Treaty of Versailles
The Allies Meet at
The meeting's major decisions were made by the "Big Four"
The Allies Dictate a Harsh Peace
Britain and France showed little sign of agreeing to Wilson's vision of peace
Much of the war had occurred in France, and the French were determined to punish Germany
Britain and France wanted to eliminate Germany's ability to make war
France wanted to make Germany suffer financially for the war
The Treaty of Versailles is signed at this desk on June 28, 1919.
The Legacy of the War
American President Woodrow Wilson
Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France
Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain
Prime Minister of Italy, Vittorio Orlando
The "Big Four"
The first 5 points included an end to secret treaties,
freedom of the seas
, free trade and reduced national armies and navies
While the war was still raging President Wilson drew up a series of proposals
They come to be known as the
Wilson wanted to achieve a just and
The 5th goal was the adjustment of colonial claims with
toward colonial peoples
Points 6-13 were specific suggestions for changing borders and
The guiding idea behind these points was
Which means letting people decide what kind of government they want to have
(Referendum in the Ukraine)
Wilson's 14th point proposed a "general association of nations" that would protect "great and small states alike."
Wilson wanted an organization that could peacefully negotiate solutions to world conflicts.
This became known as the
League of Nations
The "Hall of Mirrors"
Germany humiliated France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71).
Wilhelm, King of Prussia, is crowned the Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany. Germany becomes an empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles
"The signing of the Peace Treaty at Versailles on June 28th formally ended the greatest war in the history of the world, and as the German delegates attached their signatures the thoughts of many turned back to the days of 1871 when Bismarck imposed his conditions on the French delegates in the same hall."
The Treaty is signed, and the League of Nations is created to prevent another war like this from happening
The five Allied powers- the U.S., Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan- were to be permanent members of the league's Executive Council
Germany was left out of the League
Germany was punished with reparations and with the loss of territory
Germany was also forced to accept Article 231, also known as the "war guilt" clause
Because Germany was legally responsible for the war, according to the Treaty, Germany had to pay reparations
Reparations: money paid by a defeated nation to compensate for damage or injury during a war.
Germany was told to pay 132 billion gold marks
50 billion was the amount actually expected
Germany loses its territories in Africa and in the Pacific. They become territories to be held by the League of Nations until they become judged ready for independence.
A Peace Built on Quicksand
- The League of Nations fails
8.5 million soldiers die as a result of the war
21 million soldiers are wounded
The war caused enourmous suffering
The apparent pointlessness of the war leaves a mark
The "Lost Generation" suffers from insecurity and despair following the war
Germany is vengeful and embittered