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Japanese Colonization of the Philippines
Transcript of Japanese Colonization of the Philippines
In September of 1944 the US forces started bombing areas of the Philippines under Japanese control.
In October of 1944 the Americans had air raids over Clark Air Base, destroying over 1500 planes.
In October of 1944 the Untied States land in Leyte and win the ensuing battle, destroying most of the Japanese fleet.
The US army continues to engage in battle with the Japanes over the next year, recapturing cities such as Bataan, Corregidor, and Manila.
In June of 1945 Japanese resistance ends and the Philippines are liberated.
On August 14th, 1945 the unconditional surrender of Japan is announced.
Life in the Philippines Under Japanese Control
Japan Takes Over the Philippines
December 26th, 1941- MacArthur declared Manila an open city (unfortified and undefended, thus exempt from enemy attack).
December 27th, 1941- Japanese bombed Manila
January 2nd, 1942- The Japanese captured Manila and US naval base and activated Japanese Military Administration which brought the Philippines under Japanese control.
The Japanese and American armies continued to fight in the Philippines for the following months. By May of 1942 the last remaining American troops had surrendered to the Japanese.
World War 2: Invasion by the Japanese
The Philippines declares independence as Emilio Aguinaldo leads the rebellion against the US.
In 1901 Aguinaldo is captured by the United States and William Taft becomes the first governor of the Philippines.
Taft stabilizes the economy and creates a program that allows Filipinos to study in the US.
In 1916 the US passes the Jones law which grants the Philippines with their own house and senate.
In 1934 the Tydings McDuffie Act is passed, granting the Philippines independence in 1946.
The Commonwealth government is established in 1935 and Manuel Quezon y Molina is declared the president.
Spanish first arrived in 1521 and immediately began colonizing.
In 1886 Jose Rizal wrote
Noli Me Tangere
(The Lost Eden) that displayed ideas of separation from Spain.
Rizal was executed by Spain for anti Spanish sentiments and "Instigating Insurrection".
US took ownership of the Philippines from Spain in 1898 after the Spanish-American War ends as the treaty of Paris is signed.
Japanese Colonization of the Philippines
This painting illustrates the Spanish arrival in the Philippines.
During the occupation Japanese established a “puppet government” or the Second Philippine Rebublic, whose purpose was to legitimize Japanese occupation in the Philippines.
Jose P. Laurel was inaugurated as its first president.
His first act was to sign a military alliance with Japan
Government Under Japanese
By the time the Japanese became involved in the World War II had begun.
The Philippines had been neglected and did not posses sufficient military supplies.
General Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and appointed commander of all Armed forces in the Far East.
Philippine army was absorbed by the American Army.
December 7th, 1941- (December 8th in the Philippines) the Japanese attacked Philippines just 10 hours after attacking Pearl Harbor.
A Filipino girl living on the United State Army's Fort McKinnley described the bombing:
"The planes came and went throughout the night. The air was filled with their droning noise, sirens, the cannons firing at them, machine guns firing, and explosions. During the daylight hours the skies would darken with Japanese planes and the sirens would sound again warning us to hide. We were told to get under the house."
While the Japanese occupation was going on the Japanese would take over homes, school houses, and other buildings for camps or communication stations.
Soldiers taken prisoner by the Japanese had to endure many harshites. They were given very little food and water rations and were subjected to unhygienic conditions. Many prisoners died of malaria or cholera. The Japanese did, however, gradually release prisoners, given that pledge their allegiance to Japan.
Many families had to hide from the Japanese and eventually relocate.
The Japanese controlled the schools, resulting in many people dismissing the need for schooling.
Filipino women were regularilly raped and murdered by Japanese soldiers.
The Japanese confiscated all motor vehicles
The Japanese ordered that a man from every household had to work in labor camps.
The Japanese would seek out and kill guerillas (Filipinos who waged guerilla warfare in the Japanese countryside).
One Filipino reported:
"Once they were looking for guerrillas amongst the townspeople they gathered all the men and made them sit under the scorching sun at Batong Malake where they conducted a roll call. Then they marched them to Los Baños where they were put in small buildings for nine days without food and only a very little water to get them to talk. The people were told that the families of any man who did not report for the zonas would be killed."
Americans and Filipinos surrendering to the Japanese in May of 1942.
The US army landing in Leyte.
High exports in agriculture, specifically rice and coconuts.
The Philippines are making advances in the production of electronics, petroleum, and other goods.
The Philippines had a very unstable government coming out of the Japanese colonization.
Today they have a Republic Democracy with three branches of government, similar to the United States government. Its current president is Benigno Aquino III.
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)
The MILF is a secessionist campaign in the South Philippines since 1978, around the time Ferdinand Marcos came into power.
Their goal is to establish an independent homeland for the Moro people (a muslim group making up 5-10% of the Philippines population)
They are governed by Islamic law
They formed a relationship w/ Al Qaeda in the 1990’s
In exchange for resources and military training, the MILF helped Al Qaeda affiliates, the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), accomplish many tasks including 3 lethal bombings in Indonesia
These events caused MILF to be considered a potential security threat to Southeast Asia
The Gov. of the Philippines and MILF have had ongoing peace negotiations
The gov. is afraid that Al Qaeda will infiltrate MILF. which will lead to the end of peaceful negotiation.
This video describes some of the current political issues going on in the Philippines.
Discussion Question: How do you think living under Spanish colonization, followed by United States occupation affected the Filipino people going into world war 2? How do you think it affected their attitudes towards the Japanese occupation?
Discussion Question: How did Japanese colonization affect the government in a way that would inspire the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and their desire for secession?
Discussion Question: How did Japan's actions during their occupation of the Philippines dehumanize not only the Filipino people, but themselves as well?
"Philippines." - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2014. <http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippines>
From this source I got as well as the next source I leaned when the commonwealth was formed as well as that the phillipines was left defenseless for world war 2
"Military History of the Philippines during World War II." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 May 2014. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II>.
See the previous annotations
Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2014. <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/philippinestime1.html>
Overarching history of history of the Philippines spanning 25,000 BC to 1946 at the end of the Japanese occupation
"The Fall of the Philippines-Chapter 2." The Fall of the Philippines-Chapter 2. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/5-2/5-2_2.htm#p25>.
Military operations taken by US during Japanese occupation of Philippines
"All American Forces in the Philippines Surrender Unconditionally." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/all-american-forces-in-the-philippines-surrender-unconditionally>.
Info on American surrender to Japanese in the Philippines on May 6, 1942
Source Citation cont.
"Puppet Government." Wikipilipinas. n.p, n.d, Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://enwikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Puppet_Government>.
Info on the type of government established during Japanese occupation of the Philippines
"Philippines-Japanese Colonization-1942-1945."Philippines Japanese. n.p, n.d. Web. <http://www.philippinesjapanese.com/Timeline.html>.
Timeline on military and political actions taken by the Japanese and American armies during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Leonie, Aling. "Life During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines." Amerikanitos. Cultural Bridge Productions, n.d. Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://www.johnsheaodonnell.com/CulturalBridgeProductions/print-phwwii.htm>.
Thorough account of the events of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines from the perspective of a Filipino girl at the time.
Source Citation cont.
"Moro Islamic Liberation Front(MILF) and Security in Southeast Asia." United States Institute of Peace. N.p.. Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://www.usip.org/events/moro-islamic-liberation-front-milf-and-security-southeast-asia>.
Info on the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
"Philippines Profile." BBC News. N.p.. Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://m.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15521300>.
Info on current economic state of the Philippines
Cullinane, Michael. "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/456399/Philippines>.
Info on current state of government and economy in the Philippines
Info on MILF