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Marta Fernandez Roman

on 21 May 2013

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Big Bang 4.6 b.y TIMELINE HISTORY 1 st cell 300 m.y Primitive cell evolution of spices during millions years First cell
was discovered for Robert Hook in 1665 hominids First hominid primitive 4 m.y Paolitics -australopitecus
-homo habilis
-homo erectus
-homo neandertalen-
-homo sapiens importants neolitics They worked practically in 2 jobs agriculture farm In this job, the people
had to toke care for the
animals and cultivations. In this age they take care for the animals
to extract all the food , milk ,wool.... to
survive to nature. mesopotamia Agriculture and livestock start 6000-5000 a.c.civilization finally settled down with tremendous technical progress as the wheel and the calculation made ​​by entries on clay tablets and evolve into the first forms of writing. The writing was discovered
in the city of mesopotamia in
Sumeria. It was the first Mesopotamian civilization. After the year 3000. C. Sumerians in Mesopotamia created a collection of city-states: Uruk, Lagash, Kish, Uma, Ur, Eridu and Ea economic environment which was based on irrigation. They were the first to write (cuneiform), also they built some large temples. Pre-history History The history started in 3000 b.C with the discovery of the writing The name of Mesopotamia means :
'the land between the rivers', Egypt 3500-2100 a.C The first communities were living the country,
and were structured regions called nomes. The most representative monuments were the Sphinx (Esfinge) and the Pyramids Egypt was divided in: High and Low Egypt around the year 4000 a.C Greece Ancient Rome 3 a.C - 800 d.C Greeks lived during 350 years under the Turkish Yoke -Roman civilization started with the of Rome
-They conquered territories on the Italian Peninsula, British Isles, Sahara Desert, Mesopotamia and Iberian Peninsula.
-Romans spreads their language, Latin and the empire was organised into provinces, which had to pay taxes and was controlled by a governor, appointed by the emperor. -At the beginning of the 3rd century, Roman Empire suffered a crisis: cities were attacked. Germanic tribes invaded from the north and the Persians from the east.
-The power oh the emperors diminished because they were unable to solve these problems.
-When Diocletian came to power the Empire recovered, the emperor Constantine also introduces changes: tolerated Christianity and moves the capital to Constantinople.
-In 375 the Huns entered Germanic territories. After the emperor Theodosius died in 395 the empire was divides into two.
-The Western Empire, the emperors were weak and incapable of stopping Germanic tribes.
-In 476 they deposed the last western Roman Emperor, bringing the empire to an end.
-The Eastern Empire was maintained for another thousand years: Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire Western Roman Empire Capitals Contastiniple Why did the Roman Empire decline? Crisis of the 3rd century Recover of the 4th century The falls of the Roman Empire Women: Were never considered citizens
-There were under the rule of a men.
-Main role: Have children, worked the fields... Citizens: Had rights. They could own property, go to trials and get married No-citizens: Had none rights. They could be freemen or slaves. Slaves could be free if their owner gave theme their freedom The early middle ages 5 a.C - 15 a.C Fall of the Roman Empire Middle Eges Fall of the Eastern Roman Empire The germanic kingdoms -Franks, in France -Visigoths, in Spain -Ostrogoths, and later the ,
the Lombards, in Italy -Angles and the Saxons, in
Britain The visigoths -They entered the Roman Empire at the end of the 4th century to scape from the Huns. -Six years later they expelled the Germanic people, in exchange they receives lands in Gaul (France), but at the beginning of the 6th century the Franks expelled them, such as they went to the Iberian Peninsula and founded their kingdom. -During the second half of the 7th century. there was a constant fighting and in 711, after the Muslim invasion the Visigothic kingdom disappeared. What was he Byzantine Empire like? The Byzantine Empire -The Eastern Roman Empire was richer than the Western Roman Empire, it was know as the Byzantine Empire. Its capital city was Constantinople, formerly Byzantium. Justinian -The most Byzantine emperor was Justinian, during 527 and 565 with his wife Theodora. His armies conquered many territories: North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and Italy. A slow decline -After Justinian's death, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territory.
-By the 15th century, only Constantinople remained. In 145, the city was conquered by the Turks. This marked the end of the Middle Ages. What were Byzantine religion and at like? Tradition and religion -At first, they followed the traditions of the Roman Empire, But after Justinian's reign, it adopted an increasing number of Greek customs.
-In 1054, there was a separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church, called the East.Wers Schism.
-Religion affected life and culture. In the 8th century, the emperors tried to prohibit ther worship of holy images or icons. Decisions caused numerous riots.
-Orthodox is the main Christianity in Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and Macedonia. Art -Churches with a Greek.cross plan and large domes.
-Mosaics. What is Islam? Muhammad, the founder of Islam -Muhammad was a merchant from Mecca, he learned two monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity. He preached a new religion: Islam and this religion taught that people should worship Allah.
-The rich Merchants of la Mecca thought that Muhammad was a danger to society, such as, he moved to Medina in 622, and this date is known as the Hegira and marks teh start of the Muslim calendar. He formed his army and in 628 he conquered Mecca. Islamic religion -The Koran is the sacred book of the Muslims. They have five obligations. These are called the five pillars. How did Islam evolve? The expansion of Islam -The highest authority was the caliph. The first four caliphs were descendents of Muhammad.
-During the Umayyad period, the tittle of caliph became hereditary. They conquered territories from Persia to the Iberian Peninsula.
-In 750 a rebellion ended the Umayyad dynasty and Abbasid family came into power.
-Internal fighting broke up the empire. After the 13th century, the Turks were the most powerful people in the Islamic world. A brilliant civilization - The Islamic economy was based on agriculture, craftsmanship and trade. Merchants travelled by land and sea.
- The souk, or market, was the centre of a city's activity.
- The Muslims introduced Asian inventions such as gunpowder and the compass. They invented the use of zero, Arabic numerals, and algebra; also medicine. What was the Carolingian Empire? The Carolingian Empire -After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Frankish was established in France. The most important king of these was Charles Martel. He defeated the muslims in FRanmce, in 732.
- Pippin the short, Martel's son, was succeede by his son Charlemagne, who wanted to restore the Western Roman Empire.
-In 800, the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the new Emperor of the West. Government -Charlemagne divided the Empire into counties. He appointed military governors to control the marches, or the areas near the borders. The division of the Empire -According to custom, Charlemagne's kingdom was divided among his sons.
-Charlemagne had one surviving son, Louis the Pious. When he died, the Empire was divided among his son: Charles, Louis, and Lothair.
-They signed the Treaty of Verdun(843), which confirmed the division of the Empire. Feudal society 1-What were the second invasions? -From about 850 to about 1100, Europe was divided and weak. This led a second wave o invasions.
-The Vikings came from Scandinavia.
-The Magyars or Hungarians came from the steppes of Asia; of Hungary.
-The Saracens were Muslim pirates.
-These invasions created a climate of violence and insecurity in Europe. 2-What was feudalism? The origin of feudalism -The kings were very weak. They couldn't protect their lands.
-As peasants couldn't depend on the king's protection, they turned to the noble because they had their own armies and castles. In exchange they had to work for the nobles and they became nobles' serfs. Feudalism: anew social system -Under feudalism, great nobles had complete control over their lands. The king's power was limited to the lands he controlled directly.
-Barons governed in the king's name in exchange for a fief or manor, so, they became the king's vassals by accepting the king's supremacy. They did this at a ceremony where they paid homage: they promised to govern the land which had been given, and to provide troops and fight for the king when necessary.
-these lords could also have vassals; nobles of a lower rank, and received a smaller fief. The powers of the king and his court -The court was formed by the lawyers, clergy and soldiers. They helped the king to govern.
-The king's army was small. Defence depended on his vassals' private armies.
-The king's main income from his fiefs and from some towns. 3- What was a fief? -A fief -The land which the nobles received in exchange for swearing allegiance, was called a fief or manor. Part of the land on the manor, called the demesne, was used by the lord himself.
-The lord also rented plots of land to the peasants so that they could grow their own food.
-The rent was paid in money, products or work on their lands (lord). The manors had large forests which belonged to the lord.
-The peasants had to pay a tax to use the mill, oven... and the lord took a toll, from the merchants who crossed their bridges and their land 4- How was medieval society organised? Medieval society -Was divided into three groups called states: the nobles, the clergy and the workers.
· The nobles were the knight and their families.
· The clergy were the monks and priests.
· The workers were mainly peasants, but also craftsmen and merchants.
-Except for the clergy, everybody was born into an estate. The nobles and the clergy were privileged estates and so they has advantages: they didn't pay taxes, they didn't work and they held the most important positions in government. 5-Who were the nobles? Nobles or knights -Some nobles owned larges fiefs, others only their horses and their weapons.
-War was the nobles' main activity. They fought on horseback.
.Nobles' sons started training when they ere eight years old. they served as pages to an important noble and learned to fight. At the age of fifteen, they became squires. If they proves their worth, they were made knights.
-In wartime, the king asked the nobles for their helped. Nobles had to be ready to go to war, so they often trained in tournaments. Noblewomen -The most important function was to marry and have children. Marriages were arranged by parents.
·Noblewomen organised the servants, educated the children, and did sewing and weaving.
·They had to obey their husband; they rarely left the castle.
·Women who didn't marry went into convents. 6- Who were the clergy? The church -The Catholic Church was present in all of Western Europe.
-The pope in Rome was the head of the Church. The Pope had great influence, and he could excommunicated a king.
-Below the Pope:
·Bishops and priests.
·Religious orders. Each order was led by an abbot. Friars, monks and nuns. Religious orders -The most important religious order in the Early Middle Ages was Order of Saint Benedict.

· Some orders were closed. In other words, their members couldn't leave their monastery.
. Some rules required that members beg to collect money for the poor. Others imposed absolute poverty.
·The members of each order wore a habit. Life in monasteries -Nuns and monks lived in convents and monasteries. They spent most of their time in prayer and meditation.
·Nun: women who worked for god.
·Monk: someone who lived in a monastery in a mountain.
·Friars: brother in a special community. 7- how did peasants live? Serfs and freemen -Ninety percent of the population were peasants; most lived on a fief and worked on the lord's land, however, there were differences between them.
· Some peasants were serfs: They were completely subjected to the lord's land authority. They couldn't leave the fief, or get married without permission.
· Other, were freeman. They could leave the fief, and take personal decision. They worked on the lord's land and paid rent, but they kept some of the harvest. They paid a tithe to the Church. Everyday life - The peasants usually lived in small village. People and animals often shared the house.
- The father was the head of the family, the rest, had to obey him.
- Peasants were self-sufficient.
- Illness was often fatal and few people reached the age of forty. Disasters, such as drought, floods and plague caused many deaths. The peasants' work - The whole family, including children, worked from sunrise to sunset.
- They had no fertilisers. Every year they left half of their land follow so that it could recover and become fertile again.
- The peasants' main crops were cereals for making bread and beer. Some families had one or two animals. Kings Clergy-nobles Knights Peasants/serfs -From the 11th century, a new style of art spread throughout Western Europe, it known as Romanesque.
-The main buildings were made of stone. The architects used barrel vault, domes, arches and big columns and pillars. The walls were very thick and the windows were very small, and there weren't many of them
-The churches were usually cruciform, to recall the cross on which Jesus died: a Latin cross, the long arm was made up of one or more naves finishing in an apse, and the shorter is called transept.
-Art had an educational and religious function.
-The sculptures were painted in bright colours.
-The facades, especially the tympanums, were decorated with subjects.
-Romanesque paintings:
·Mural painting
·Panel painting
·Miniatures Medieval cities 1-Why did Europe become more prosperous? Agriculture and population -Agricultural production started yo increase from the 12th century.
·New land was created by cutting down forests and draining marshes.
·In some areas, the three-year system of crop rotation was established.
·The mouldboard plough.
·Irrigation became more widespread and new crops were introduced.
·There was also greater use of wind and water mills.
-Food production increased and there was less hunger. As a result, there was a sharp population increase. King Aristocracy Merchants Poor people -nobles
-clergy -master craftsmen
-apprentice 2-How did trade grow? The development of trade and banking -Trade developed quickly from the 12th century. Products were transported by land, river and sea.
-There was two important sea routes:
·The Mediterranean route linked Spanish and Italian cities with ports and the Byzantine Empire.
·The Atlantic and Baltic route was dominated by a merchants' association, the Hanseatic League. Theroute linked the ports of Portugal and Cantabria with Flemish, German and Russian cities.
-As a result of the increase in trade, banking techniques changed and new financial methods were developed:
·Credit was introduced.
·Bills of exchange made it unnecessary to carry money. 3-Why did cities grow? The important of cities -Cities began to grow again in the 12th century. Some old cities were revived. New cities appeared, often near a castle or monastery, at a crossroads or on a trade route.
-Medieval cities were small, the biggest had around 50000 inhabitants. The causes of urban growth ·New farming techniques resulted in less work for people. Many peasants had ti migrate to cities to find work.
·There was a revival in trade. Many merchants went to live in the cities where the markets were.
·Cities offered peasants better life. They weren't controlled by a feudal lord. All inhabitants were free. Inhabitants -Different kinds of people lived in cities.
·Some merchants were rich.
·Most were craftsmen, shopkeepers or worked in domestic service.
·Some were poor. They had no work and had to beg.
-In the cities, most of the population were Christians. There was also groups of Jews who lived in ghettoes or in Jewish quarters. On the Iberian Peninsula, there were Islamic people who lived in Moorish quarters. 4-What was the role of craftsmen? Craftsmen -Population grew and, consequently, there was grater demand for clothes and objects made of wood and metal. The number if craftsmen increased. There were weavers, coopers, stone, masons, bakers, carpenters and dyers.
-Craftsmen made their products by hand. They worked in small workshop.
-Craftsmen of the same profession often lived in the same street. These streets were named after trades. Guild -From the 12th century, all artisans in the same profession joined a guild. Each guild had its own statue, which established members' rights and obligations.
-Guilds controlled productions and distributed raw materials. The number of workers, and established prices.
-Nobody could work in a trade if they didn't join a guild. Trades -There were three categories:
·Master craftsmen owned the workshop, the tools and the raw materials. The masters ran and controlled the guilds.
·Journeymen were skilled craftsmen who received wages.
·Apprentices were young men who wanted to learn a trade. They lived in their master's house and worked for him for several years. They didn't received any payment. 5-Why did monarchies grow stronger? The growth of royal authority -In the 12th century, medieval economies improved and the kings collected more taxes. They created their own armies.
-They strengthened the governments in their kingdom.
-In the cities, the kings began to take power from the nobles. They gave charters of liberties to the cities, which became free of feudal dependence. In exchange, the citizens supported the king against the feudal lords. The creation of parliaments -The kings began to create parliaments. The only people who were represented were the king, the nobles, the clergy and the city mayors.
-Parliaments only met when the king called a meeting
-But the parliaments didn't have a lot of power, the king always had the final decision. Conflicts between Europeans kingdoms -Many conflicts were caused by disputes over succession.
-Other disputes were caused by the need to establish borders. -Gothic art, like Romanesque was religious, but it also show the power and wealth of the cities. The most representative buildings was the cathedrals, it became the centre of the city. Guilds and municipals councils met in cathedrals before town halls were built.
-Cities competed with each other to built the biggest or tallest cathedral. -Pointed arches and rib vault were used. The weight of the rib vault didn't rest on the walls, but on the pillars inside the cathedral and on the flying buttresses outside.
Thick were no longer. The windows were made of stained glass, and there were rose windows in bright colours. Gothic cathedrals were high and represent the heaven.
-The Latin cross shape continued to be used, but the east ends were polygonal, not semicircular, and the central nave was much higher and wider than side aisles. What was Al-Andalus Al-Andalus -In 711,there was a civil war in the Visigothic kingdom, between Roderick and the Witiza's family, they asked Muslims in North Africa for help. The governor of this region, Musa took their troops to the Peninsula ans defeated Roderick at the Battle of Guadelete.

-However, Musa didin't give power back to the Visigoths. Instead, in just four years, their armies occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula.

-They called the territories in their power Al-Andalus.
Al-Andalus was rules by an emir, under the Ummayad Caliphate of Damascus. Córdoba became the capital. The independence Emirate -In 750, the Umayyad family was assassinated, but one of its members, Abd-al-Rahman, managed to escape. He reached the Iberian peninsula. The Caliphate of Córdoba -Abd-al-Rahman III inherited the throne in 912.
In 929 he became Caliph: the political and religious leader..
-The Caliphate of Córdoba was the most period of Al-Andalus. What were the Muslims kingdoms? The taifas -In 1013,, the Caliphate was divided into taifas, or small kingdoms.
-The taifas were constantly attacked by Christians from the north. The taifas paid taxes, called parias to avoid the attcks. The muslims asked for help from the Almoravids. who were Berber warriors from North Africa. Almoravids and Almohads -The Almoravids wnt to the Iberian Peninsula to stop the Christians advance.
-The Almohads continued the fight against the Christians kingdoms. The Christian armies united and defeated the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, the Christians conquered almost all of Al-Andalus. The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada -The kingdom of Granada became the last Muslim territory.
-For almost two and half centuries, it was the vassal of Castile. The rulers of Granada had to pay taxes to the Castilian kings, and help them in time of war.
-Finally, the kingdom became Christian when it fell to the Catholic Monarchs in 1492. What was the economy of Al-Andalus? Economic activity -Most of the population worked in agriculture. The main crops were cereals, grapes and olives.
-They developed irrigation techniques.
-They introduced new crops, such as cotton and indigo.
-In cities, high quality craftwork was produced: gold, silverwork, silks...
-Al-Andalus was also centred of very active trade. Two different coins were used: the gold dinar ans the silver dirhem. What was society like? -After conquering the Iberian Peninsula, the Muslims were tolerant towards Christians and Jews.
-The most powerful group was formed by the conquerors and their descendants, Arabs and Berbers.
.The Arabs: had the best land, and were organised according of government.
.The Berbers were numerous, but had fewer privileges.
-The rest of population was organised according to religious criteria.
.The Muladíes were former Christians who adopted the religion.
.The Mozarabs were Christians who continued to practise their religion, they paid taxes.
.The Jews played a significant role in the economy. Were in separate of the city. What was life in cities like? Muslim cities An unequal society -Muslim cities had walls with several gates, which were closed at night. The main area was the medina, which contained the most important buildings, including the aljama, or main mosque. The religious life was centred here.
-Around the medina there were the arrabales, or workers' districts, where the craft workshop were located.
-The centre of political life was the alcázar. Social and economic life was centred on the souk, or market. The merchants kept their goods in large warehouse, known as alhóndigas. What were Islamic culture
and architecture like? Cultural legacy -A splendid culture developed in Al-Andalus.
-The legacy of Al-Andalus can be found in the houses and food and eastern Spain. The influence on the Spanish language is important too, there are about 4000 words of Arabic origin in Castilian Spanish. Architecture -Art, especially architecture, flourished in Al-Andalus. Painting and sculpture were used to decorate buildings.
-Islamic architecture had certain characteristics
.Poor building materials were used
.These materials were covered with abundant decoration. Geometrical and plant motifs were used, also calligraphy and texts from the Koran.
.There was a play on light and shade. A love of water can be seen in fountains, pools ans waterfalls.
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