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APES Chapter 12

Renewable Energy Resources

KaiLea Stiffler

on 10 March 2013

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Transcript of APES Chapter 12

Chapter 12:
Renewable Energy Resources KaiLea Stiffler
APES 2 pp. 322-330 pp.330-337
Key Ideas Key Terms Checkpoints Key Ideas Checkpoints Key Terms Key Terms Inefficiencies in energy extraction and use. Checkpoints pp.315-322 nonrenewable energy source: An energy source with a finite supply, primarily the fossil fuels and nuclear fuels.
fossil fuel: A fuel derived from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago.
nuclear fuel: Fuel derived from radioactive materials that give of energy.
commercial energy source: An energy source that is bought and sold.
subsistence energy sources: Energy sources gathered by individuals for their own immediate needs. What are three examples of energy sources used by humans? Coal, oil and natural gas
Describe the difference between energy efficiency and energy quality. Energy efficiency both the efficiency of the process of obtaining the fuel and the efficiency of the process that converts it into the work that is needed. Energy quality is a measure of the ease with which stored energy can be converted into useful work.
How do we determine the overall efficiency of energy use in a system? Use this formula:

Example: "In order to obtain 100 J of coal from a surface coal mine, 5 J of energy is expended:" energy carrier: Something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users.
turbine: A device with blades that can be turned by water, wind, steam, or exhaust gas from combustion that turns a generator in an electricity-producing plant.
electrical grid: A network of interconnected transmission lines that joins power plants together and links them with end users of electricity.
combined cycle: A power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity.
capacity: In reference to an electricity-generating plant, the maximum electrical output.
capacity factor: The fraction of time a power plant operates in a year.
cogeneration: The use of a single fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat.
coal: Solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials preserved 280 million to 360 million years ago.
crude oil: Liquid petroleum removed from the ground.
oil sands: Slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay.
bitumen: A degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria; also called tar or pitch.
CTL (coal to liquid): The process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel. How are the different types of coal formed? energy intensity: The energy use per unit of gross domestic product.
Hubbert curve: A bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a maximum and when we will run out of oil.
peak oil: The point at which half the total known oil supply is used up.
fission: A nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat.
fuel rod: A cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel within a nuclear reactor.
control rod: A cylindrical device inserted between the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction.
radioactive waste: Nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity.
becquerel (Bq): Unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays; 1 Bq = decay of 1 atom or nucleus per second.
curie: A unit of measure for radiation; 1 curie = 37 billion decays per second.
nuclear fusion: A reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei. Explain the relationship between energy intensity and energy use per capita. The energy intensity decreases while the energy use per captia increases. The overall energy use per capita increases with population.
Describe the Hubbert curve and its significance. The Hubbert curve is a bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a maximum and when we will run out of oil total reserves do not greatly influence the time it would take to use up all oil in the current reserves. It involves the upper and lower estimates of reserves.
What are the major considerations involved in the future of fossil fuels? The major considerations are scarcity, environmental impacts (CO2 in global climate change), and rising costs of fossil fuels present many opportunities.

How does a nuclear reactor work, and what makes it a desirable energy option? Steam turns a turbine that turns a generator that generates electricity using a radioactive isotope (uranium-235) as a fuel source. It is desirable beacuse it has relatively low emissions of CO2.
What are the two major concerns about nuclear energy? Two major concerns are accidents and radioactive waste.
What are the promising aspects of and problems with nuclear fusion? Nuclear fusion is a seemingly unlimited source of energy that requires only hydrogen as an input and produces relatively small amounts of radioactive waste. A problem is that creating fusion on Earth requires a reactor that will heat to the temperature of the Sun's core, making containment difficult. Describe how energy use and energy resources have varied over time, both in the United States and worldwide.
Energy use changes over time with the level of industrial development. The United States and the rest of the developed world have moved from a heavy reliance on wood and coal to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. The developing world still relies largely on wood, charcoal, and animal waste. Each source of energy is best suited for certain activities, and less well suited for others.

Compare the energy efficiencies of the extraction and conversion of different fuels.
Energy efficiency is an important consideration in determining the environmental impacts of energy use. In general, the energy source that entails the fewest conversions from its original form to the end use is likely to be the most efficient. Although multi-passenger transportation is the most energy-efficient way to travel, in the United States the single-passenger vehicle is the most popular.

Explain the various means of generating electricity.
Electricity generation plants convert the chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear fuels are the energy sources most commonly used for generating electricity. The electrical grid is a network of interconnected transmission lines that ties power plants together and links them with end users of electricity.

Discuss the uses and consequences of using coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear fuels.
Coal is an energy-dense fossil fuel that is a common energy source for electricity generation. Coal combustion, however, is a major source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Petroleum includes both crude oil and natural gas. The United States uses more petroleum than any other fuel, primarily for transportation. Petroleum produces air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Oil spills are a major hazard to organisms and habitat. Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel. Nuclear energy is a relatively clean means of electricity generation, though fossil fuels are used in constructing nuclear power plants and mining uranium. The major environmental hazards of nuclear energy are accidents and radioactive waste.

Describe projections of future supplies of our conventional energy resources.
Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Most observers believe that oil production will begin to decline some time in the next few decades. The transition away from oil will have important environmental consequences, depending upon how quickly it occurs and whether we make a transition to renewable energy resources or alternative fossil fuels. Coal Formation
Process How is oil formed, and why does it need to be refined? What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, and natural gas? Coal: It can be used to generate electricity and make steel; it contains a number of impurities that are released into the atmosphere when burned.
Oil: it is convenient to transport and use; it also contains sulfur and trace metals that are release into the atmosphere when burned.
Natural gas: It contains fewer impurities; its extraction and use cause environmental problems. Petroleum forms over millions of years and fills the pore spaces in the rock. It needs to be refined because crude oil can be further refined into a variety of compounds. These compounds, including tar and asphalt, gasoline, diesel, and kerosene, are distinguished by the temperature at which they boil and can therefore be separated by heating the petroleum. Each type is formed in some way that relates to peat, which is partly decomposed organic material. The types are formed in the following ways: (1) lignite: peat is compressed between sediment layers; (2&3) sub-bituminous and bituminous: further compression of pea/lignite; and (4) anthracite: more pressure and time of the peat/coal types
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