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Transcript of Absolutism
Fiona Tran Absolutism Analyze the extent to which rulers and their subjects viewed the proper role of an absolute monarchy differently. Historical Background Document 1 Analysis Document 2 Analysis Document 4 Analysis Document 5 Absolutist governments were viewed by some as a solution to the upheaval of the Reformation and the subsequent rapid growth and change in 17th century Europe. Absolute monarchs ruled over centralized bureaucracies that oversaw armies, trade, and agriculture, and they negotiated with other rulers to help maintain peace in the "age of crisis." This new political system was adopted by govts. in France, Spain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. They were viewed by their subjects as the literal embodiment of a government that used suppression and the claim of God-given authority to carry out its abuses. Written by: German peasants in Swabia
-Point of View: from lower class, oppressed individuals
-opinionated because the peasants are poor
-Individuals are upset that they are peasants- they do not think they should be treated as property because Jesus redeemed them all
-The peasants feel that according to the Bible, they should be free
-The peasants are upset that people are being taken advantage of, and people are making money off the things that used to be free, like their right to life Written by King James VI of Scotland
-Point of View: from the highest class, extraordinarily affluent perspective-opinionated because he is the King
Parliament consists of king and vassals
- the king can do anything he wants without the Parliament's agreement.
-the king controls everything, including life and death.
-King has absolute power- document shows that the king is self aware of his power, and enjoys possessing it, he does not want his power taken away, and does not care how many lives he has to ruin to keep it. Document 2 Document 3 Analysis Document 6 Analysis Written by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, an English Minister of Finance
-Point of View: From an upper class, affluent member of society
-opinionated because he is a wealthy member of society
-he views it as a benefit to society.
-he believes everyone will agree on this
advantages: -increase in cash-increase in manufacturing -increase in jobs means people are happy & able to earn a living -there will be an especially increase in French ships.
-increase in ships means increase in trade which means increase in power Document 7 Analysis Written by Arthur Young (an English agricultural scientist)
Point of View: feels oppressed, attempts to remain neutral, but hints at disliking Absolutism shine through
-observes society as a whole
-no opinion is directly stated
- dislikes the heavy taxes
-believes when their is an absolute monarch no one is free.
-Agrees that it is helpful if Lords can buy peasants' lands.
-He proposed a question: Why do the poor have to pay taxes, but the nobility and clergy are exempt?
-believed that it is unfair to see the high class are not paying their taxes Written by Adam Olearius, a German Diplomat.
Point of View: Condescending towards the king, against absolutism
-Observes lives of peasants.
-Peasants have harsh lives, but love masters.
-Feels peasants are blinded to what is "right and just" by their fear of punishment
-Peasants are oppressed and not protected by high authority.
-Shows concern for lives of peasants.
-Feels king should do more, to protect the peasants and let them lead lives with the same opputunities as everyone else. Written by Adam Olearius, a German diplomat.
-Observes lives of peasants.
-Peasants have harsh lives, but can endure it.
-People are oppressed and not protected by high authority. Document 8 Analysis Document 9 Analysis To the Molecular LEVEL Written by French bishop Jacques Bossuet
Point of View: Wealthy, part of Church, supports governments central power- he is opinionated because he is a bishop. He is part of the Church so he must believe in divine ruling.
-it is king's job to control people. Why? Because the royal authority is sacred, fatherly, absolute, and just because.
-even if the authority does not do its job, people still have to respect it.
-HOWEVER, just because they are chosen from God, does not mean they are free. They must use it wise Document 10 Analysis Document written by Catherine the Great, empress of Russia.
-Point of View: supports absolutism
-she thinks that the Extent of the Dominion of Russia should be governed by an absolute power
-believes that a monarchy is not about taking away peoples' rights, but correcting their actions to obtain divine goodness JUMBO SIZE Written by King Louis XIV.
-POV: supports absolutism. Biased since he is part of the upper class.
-According to him, the king is the absolute ruler.
-Thus, the king rules both the secular and religious worlds. Document 10 Document 11 Analysis Written by Siegfried Isaacsohn.
-Point of View: withdrawn, critical perspective in support of Absolutism
-Believes King should be very authoritative
-Believes ruler needs to show dominance over subjects
-Believes all subjects should be like civil service, to King
-Believes everyone should serve the king chiefly, and allow all other matters to be second. How many triangles? While we load the next document... -Book (photo is of cover)
-Written by Thomas Hobbes
-Point of View: Educated, Withdrawn perspective- Scholarly supporting Absolutism through his written works
-concerns of structure of society
-Shows extensive background on government operations
-Argued that people were inheritly nefarious, that they needed to be ruled with an iron fist
-Decided absolute monarchy was a must for a modern society like England
-Coined term "Voice of the People" radically different meaning then today, he meant that one person would know what all the persons say was, without consulting them According to many affluent members of society, an absolute monarch would greatly benefit all of the country, it could nearly instantaneously quell uprisings, and rapidly make changes to the operations of the government, should the crown see it fit. However, numerous lower class individuals rejected this idea: to these people an absolute monarchy would only diminish their freedom, and quiet their voice and input in government. -One of most remarkable monarchs in history painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud
Point of View: supports absolutism
-Since his rule, he has been the supreme example of absolutism
-Built Palace of Versailes, exapanded the area of France, centralized political powers of France under his control
-Stabilized France, making it one of the strongest powers in Europe
-France became global ideal culture
-Many tried to copy his style, most have failed