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Copy of Copy of Narrative Research
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Narrative Research
What do the experts say? Why does narrative research
matter in education? The Narrative Inquiry
Process Clandinin & Connelly (2000) state each narrative inquiry
"has its own rhythms and sequences, and each narrative
researcher needs to work them out for her or his own
inquiry" (p. 97). What do the experts say? What did the experts do? What is a Narrative? - a COMPELLING story or
account of events or
experiences Types of Narratives Narratives can be: - written or oral - gathered or overheard while
- recorded during an interview or
conversation Forms of Narratives - life story from birth to death - a short story about a specific
event - an extended story concerning a
particular event Narratives can be categorized into six (often overlapping) categories:
1) Life History - Refers to either an extensive autobiographical narrative in which all or
most of a life is documented or a social science text that presents a person’s biography
from birth to present.
2) Life Story- This term is used interchangeably with “life history” by some researchers,
while others define life story narrative about a particularly meaningful aspect of a person’s life.
3) Personal Narrative - Used to illustrate a specific compelling personal situation, but can also
refer to diaries, journals and letters.
4) Oral History- The term that historians use to describe narratives which explore the
meanings that historical events hold for the people who experienced them.
5) Testimonio- A special type of narrative which is particularly political in nature as it
focus is to give a voice to marginalized people or populations.
6) Performance Narrative- The conversion of oral or written narrative into a public
performance such as a drama or play or into another form of written text such as a
poem or piece of fiction.
(N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln, 2005) Collecting Data Tools for Collecting Data - field notes
- letter writing
Analyzing the Data Four Modes for Reading Narrative Limitations and Criticisms Data Structure - large amount of
data compared to
small sample size - each narrative will vary
as they are all unique - the interviewer and interviewee
will influence the data Conditions for Collecting Data Creating and sustaining a safe and happy environment
will result in a positive experience for the participants and
will likely have positive ramifications on your data collection.
Common Guidelines When Gathering Data
- Make appropriate adjustments to recording methods depending on the field conditions
- Be flexible in which recording methods you use
- Be empathetic when dealing with participants
- Be open to having others take part in the study. Co-authoring or conference presentations may help to comfort
- Be sure to maintain trust with participants. Confidentiality and accurate story recording and restorying is essntial. Dictionary.com What did the experts do? One of the leading researchers in Narrative Inquiry,
Jean Clandinin (2007), discusses three modes for
analyzing narrative data. She understands narrative
from a metaphorical three dimensional narrative
Temporality Personal and Social Place Narrative Inquiry
Space The Three Dimensional Narrative Space What is narrative analysis? ‘A method of qualitative research in which the researcher listens to the stories of the research subjects, attempting to understand the relationships between the experiences of the individuals and their social framework’. (Jonas, 2005) - Narratives are, of course, individualistic but
also provide a window into the social influences that have shaped
- The social context of the story is pertinent to all
analyses and thus can cause difficulties for the researcher
when trying to frame the relationship between the individual and
their social experiences.
- Transferring field text to analysis text is very challenging as it
is imperative that the researcher ensure precise restorying so analysis
is accurate and applicable.
1) The Temporal Dimension-The events and experiences that impact lives cannot be fully understood unless they are considered within the context of time (the past, the present & the future).
2) The Personal and Social Dimension-Here one considers the inward conditions such as feelings, hopes, aesthetic reactions & moral dispositions as well as the existential conditions that impact the narrator.
3) The Dimension of Place-Narrative inquiries occur in specific places or sequences of places. What Should We Look For? Methods for Analyzing Data 1. Narrative Representation
- "Researchers collect data (through interview transcripts, field notes, autobiographical writing, and so) and then unify them by re-presenting them in the form or shape of a narrative/story. The created story may be seen as a narrative representation, explanation, or performance of the phenomenon under study. In other words, the creation of the story itself may be considered an act of narrative analysis" (cf. Clandinin, 2007, p. xv). Summarized in Hoogland Wiebe (2009) 2. Thinking With a Story
-"Researchers may consider a story that they have collected or composed to be “already complete” rather than “trying to go beyond it” to make connections to other stories, literature reviews, theoretical frameworks, and so on. Thinking with a story means to experience that story as affecting your life and to find in that experience a truth about your life” (Ellis, 2004, p. 197, derived from Frank, 1995). 3. Thematic Analysis
- "Some narrative researchers treat stories as data and use analysis to arrive at themes that illuminate the content and hold within or across stories (Ellis, 2004, p. 196)." 4. Structural Analysis
- "Other narrative researchers examine how a story is organized in terms of such things as genre, movement of the plot line, storytelling strategies, word choice, point of view and so on" (Schwandt, 2007, p. 202; Ellis, 2004, pp. 196-197). 5. Functional Analyses
- "Narrative researchers may also examine what a story is “doing” (e.g., is it a cautionary tale, a success story?)" (Schwandt, 2007, p. 202) -You may use only one method but many
narrative inquiries incorporate multiple methods. We need to understand:
There are 2 Components
- The Gathering of Narratives
- The Critiquing of Narratives
- provides a window into our identity
- provides a window into the social experiences of the participant Holistic Categorical Content Form 1) Holistic – Content Mode
•uses the complete life story of an individual
•focuses on the content presented by it
•typical of clinical “cases studies”
•identifies & interprets major themes 2)Holistic – Form Mode
•uses the complete life story
•focuses on the plots or structure of the story
- is it a comedy or a tragedy?
- Does it ascend (- to +) or descend (+ to -) to
the present moment?
- Is there a climax or turning point which
shed light on the entire development?
•experiences can be graphed 3)Categorical – Content Mode (Content Analysis)•categories are defined•parts of the text re extracted, classified and out into the proper category•quantitative treatment of the narrative often follows 4)Categorical – Content Mode
•looks at defined units of the narrative
•focuses on discrete stylistic or linguistic characteristics of the unitsa.what kinds of metaphors are usedb.frequency of passive & active voice
•instances of this nature are collected from
1 or several texts and counted 1. Research not applicable to a large population
2. Bias recording and restorying
3. Close relationship with participant could skew findings What was the experts experience? 1. Narratives create a sense of
Cresswell (2008, p.511) states “By conducting narrative studies educational researchers establish a close bond with the participants. This may help reduce a commonly held perception by practitioners in the field that research is distinct from practice and has little direct application. Additionally, for participants in a study, sharing their stories may make them feel that their stories are important and that they are heard” 2. Narratives engage 3. Narratives are holistic 4. Narratives can speak a universal language