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How have humans altered biomes to produce food, industrial m
Transcript of How have humans altered biomes to produce food, industrial m
How have humans altered biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres?
People in Europe use about a quarter of water from the natural environment for irrigation. Intensive farming in Europe creates pollution due to more pesticides and fertilisers. In Europe, people clear land to make room for farmland.
In Africa people clear forests for farmland and they dig dams and rivers for water. Africa‘s soils are some of the most degraded in the world, so to increase fertility and encourage better farming they are trying to improve the soil.
What is the capacity of the countries within these continents to sustainably feed the projected future population and achieve food security?
Europe’s population is actually going to decrease in the next 50 years. This will help the European countries to sustainably feed the future population.
Africa's population on the other hand is going to increase by double. In Africa right now they have trouble feeding the population so when it grows they won't be able to cope.
What have been the environmental effects of these alterations?
By using this amount water for farming in Europe, they have to treat the water before it is used and this puts chemicals and other pollutants into the environment. This pollution is added to the fertilisers and pesticides to create a huge amount of pollution. Clearing land can lead to run off of top soil which leads to siting up of rivers and dams and it also affect the habitats of wildlife.
By making dams and rivers Africa is affecting the environment by affecting the wildlife that lives on the land. This also brings new animals to these places which changes the environment around there. With improving the soil, Africa is destroying the habitats of the insects that live there.
What are the challenges to food production including land and water degradation, shortage of fresh water, competing land uses and climate change for these two continents?
In Europe they are facing 2 main challenges to food production. Firstly, the number of farmers are declining so maintaining agriculture is becoming more difficult. Secondly, intensive farming is becoming more popular because it is cheaper, this creates pollution in soil, rivers and lakes and can effect the environment.
One of the main challenges to food production in Africa is under-developed agricultural areas that can’t be fixed because there isn’t enough money. Land degradation is a major issue for farming in Africa and it is getting worse and worse.
Italy vs. South Africa
Similarities: Italy and South Africa both have very low undernourishment. Cereals and grains are both South Africa's and Italy's most grown crop.
Differences: South Africa has got 722 litres of water per person per day whereas Italy has got 1979 litres of water per person per day.
England vs. Chad
Similarities: Chad and England both farm cattle.
Differences: England imports a lot of their food and Chad doesn't have enough money to do that.Chad only has 64 litres of water per person per day and England has 539 litres of water per person per day. Chad is highly undernourished and England is very low undernourished.
France vs. Kenya
Similarities: They both use genetically modified farming (GM).
Differences: France get 1501 litres of water per person per day whereas Kenya only gets 129 litres of water per person per day. France has very low undernourishment and Kenya is highly undernourished.
Turkey vs. Egypt
Similarities: Both Turkey and Egypt have very low undernourishment.
Differences: Cherries, figs, apricots, quinces and pomegranates are what Turkey farms most, Egypt farms mostly cereals. Turkey gets 1489 litres of water per person per day whereas Egypt gets 2527 litres per person per day.
Ireland vs. Ethiopia
Differences: Beef and milk production are Ireland's two main farming sectors. Coffee and oilseed production are Ethiopia's two main farming sectors.Ethiopia is under very high undernourishment and Ireland has very low undernourishment. Ethiopia gets 196 litres of water per person per day and Ireland gets 779 litres of water per person per day.
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Europe vs. Africa
Europe and Africa are both trying to improve their food production systems but this is affecting the environment. The majority of Africa is food insecure whereas the majority of Europe is secure. Africa is very big but it doesn't have much arable land and they don't have the money to improve it or import food from other places. Europe is small but most of its land is arable so they use mostly intensive farming. In the future I don't think Africa will be able to feed its population because it is going to double and they can't produce enough food for the population that they already have. Because Europe's population will decrease by half they will easily be able to feed the future population.