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Chemistry Timeline pre 1600 to 1799
Transcript of Chemistry Timeline pre 1600 to 1799
Dr. Isha DeCoito
Feb 25, 2013 The dominant theory of matter at the time had come from the Greeks. It stated that all matter is made up of the 4 elements that are: air, fire, water, and earth. There were also the 4 qualities: hot, dry, wet, and cold that combined to define the 4 elements. http://www.webwinds.com/thalassa/aristotle4elements.gif Before chemistry, there was alchemy; a science that fused the early beginnings of chemistry with a powerful belief in mysticism. Alchemy originated in Alexandria, Egypt from a combination of Greek philosophy, mysticism, technology, and metalwork. It was believed that through the transmutation the elements could be manipulated to change metals into gold. 721 - 817 A.D.
Jabir ibn Hayyan His greatest work was titled Von der Bergsucht und Anderen Bergkrankheiten? and was not published until after his death in 1567. It was made up of 3 books; one on diseases of miners, one on diseases of smelters and iron workers, and one on mercury diseases. 1493-1541
Michal Sedziwoj Johan Baptista van Helmont was probably one of the last great iatrochemists but also one of the first great chemists. He was born in Brussels into a noble family. This time period is full of great scientific advancements and not just in chemistry. William Harvey was revolutionizing medicine while Galileo was doing likewise with physics and planetary motion. He was the first to use the term 'gas' in science and acknowledge gases having unique properties. He made carbon dioxide by treating limestone with acids, through fermentation, and the combustion of coal. In 1648, his son, Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont published the work which describes Johann’s greatest study in the willow tree experiment. Over the course of 5 years he measure the uptake of water by a willow tree which led him to believe that water made up the majority of living organisms. 1577-1644
van Helmont During the 18th century, Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution.
The Ottoman Empire was undergoing a protracted decline, as it failed to keep up with the technological advances in Europe. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas, in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which was actively helped by the French.
The industrial revolution started in Britain around 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the environment. Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution 1700-1799 Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He named both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and predicted silicon (1787). He was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.
He was an administrator and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by of selling adulterated tobacco, and of other crimes and was eventually executed. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier conducts an experiment on human respiration in this drawing made by his wife, who depicted herself at the table on the far right. The School of the Four Nations, later Mazarin College, where Lavoisier studied as a young man. These buildings now house the Académie des Sciences de l’Institut de France. Portrait of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and his wife by Jacques-Louis David, ca. 1788 Antoine Lavoisier's famous phlogiston experiment. The gasometer used by Lavoisier as illustrated in the Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, plate VII Combustion generated by focusing sunlight over flammable materials using lenses, an experiment conducted by Lavoisier in the 1770s In 1777, Lavoisier proposed a new theory of combustion that excluded phlogiston. Combustion, he said, was the reaction of a metal or an organic substance with that part of common air he termed “eminently respirable.” Two years later, he announced to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris that he found that most acids contained this eminently respirable air and, therefore, was calling it oxygène, from the two Greek words for acid generator. 1743-1794
Antoine Lavoisier English chemist and maverick theologian named Joseph Priestley discovered the gas we now know as oxygen in 1774. The laboratory where Priestley discovered oxygen at Bowood House. Portraits of Joseph Priestley The controversial nature of Priestley's publications combined with his outspoken support of the French and American Revolutions aroused public and governmental suspicion; he was eventually forced to flee, in 1791, first to London, and then to the United States, after a mob burned down his home and church. He spent the last ten years of his life living in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. Joseph and Mary set sail for America on April 8, 1794. Laboratory equipment used by Priestley in the 1700s. The Priestleys' rural Pennsylvania home never became the center of a utopian community, as the expected emigrants could not afford the journey. 1733-1804
Joseph Priestley Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a Dutch-German-Polish, physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the mercury thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him. Fahrenheit was born in Danzig (Gdańsk), the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but lived most of his life in the Dutch Republic. Fahrenheit set the freezing point of water at 32° and the body temperature of a person at 96°, which he determined by measuring the temperature under his wife’s armpit. Each degree of his scale corresponded to one ten-thousandth the initial volume of mercury used in his thermometer. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1700s His scale met widespread acceptance because everyone could relate to it, since 0 °F and 100 °F were the lowest and highest temperatures typically experienced on any type of regular basis in Western Europe. If the temperature rose above 100°, you knew it was really hot. If the temperature dipped below 0°, you knew it was quite cold. Memorial plaque at Fahrenheit's burial site in The Hague. 1686-1736
To counter the problem of Fahrenheit scale with melting and boiling points of water 32 degrees and 212 degrees (not round numbers), Anders Celsius came up with another scale in 1742, setting the freezing and boiling points of water at 0° and 100°, with 100 divisions in between. Hence, it was termed the Centigrade scale, since the prefix centi- represents one hundredth. 1701-1744
Anders Celsius The English chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish, b. Oct. 10, 1731, d. Feb. 24, 1810, was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a distinct substance. He also described the composition of water and made the first accurate measurement of the density of the Earth. Cavendish's apparatus for making and collecting hydrogen. 1731-1810
Henry Cavendish Robert Boyle was an influential member of the ‘Royal Society’. This was an elite organization of the best English scientists, physicians, mathematicians, and philosophers that met each week. This group helped start up collaboration of scientists and the practise of peer review and exists to this day as the oldest scientific academy. 1627-1691
Robert Boyle The beginnings Alchemy Blatchley R. & Shepelavy J. (1992). Robert Boyle: Mighty Chemist in Woodrow Wilson Leadership Prohram in Chemistry. Accessed online on Feb 24, 2013. http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/ci/1992/boyle.html
Clericuzio, Antonio. (1996). Water which does not wet hands: the alchemy of Michael Sendivogius in Medical History Vol 40 #4. Accessed online on Feb 22, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1037185/?page=1
Dear, Peter. (2009). Revolutionizing the Sciences- European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700 2nd edition. Princeton University Press: New Jersey.
El-Sergany, Ragheb. (2010). Jabir ibn Hayyan The founder of chemistry science in Quran & Science. Accessed online on Feb 18, 2013. http://www.quranandscience.com/early-muslim-scientists/246-jabir-ibn-hayyanthe-founder-of-chemistry-science.html
Harvey, R. B.. (1929). Joannes Baptista van Helmont in Plant Physiology Vol. 4 #4. PDF accessed online on Feb 23, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC440086/pdf/plntphys00338-0137.pdf
Karpenko, Vladimir. (2009). Some notes on the early history of nitric acid: 1300 – 1700 in Bull. Hist. Chem. Vol 34 #2. PDF accessed online on Feb 18, 2013. http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mainzv/HIST/bulletin_open_access/v34-2/v34-2%20p105-116.pdf
Katz, David A.. (2008). An illustrated history of alchemy and early chemistry. PDF accessed online on Feb 17, 2013. http://www.chymist.com/History%20Alchemy.pdf
Kelly, Emily. (2005). Paracelsus the Innovator: A Challenge to Galenism from On the Miner’s Sickness and Other Miners’ Diseases in The Proceedings of the 14th Annual History of Medicine Days at the University of Calgary. PDF accessed online on Feb 19, 2013. http://www.ucalgary.ca/uofc/Others/HOM/Proceedings%202005.pdf#page=286
Savage-Smith, Emilie. (2011). Jabir ibn Hayyan in Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the National Library of Medicine. Accessed online on Feb 18, 2013. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/bioJ.html
Sommerville, J.P.. (2013). Polish Society and Government in History 351: Seventeenth Century Europe for University of Wisconsin-Madison. Accessed online on Feb 24, 2013. http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/351-103.htm References lead transmutation gold It was also thought that alchemy could be used to make an elixir for immortality. The rich opposed alchemy for fear of their gold becoming obsolete. The craft went underground and while practiced in secret dove deeper into mysticism. The Islamic Golden Age lasted from around 800 A.D. to around 1250 A.D.. The Arab world was the center of intellectual knowledge. Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber in Latin) was arguably the biggest Islamic chemist of the time. He believed in alchemy but was also one of the first to introduce trial experimentation into science. Geber did practical work such a metal refinement and dyes. He is also credited with the first recipe of nitric acid. Pilippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim who later called himself Paracelsus was the father of iatrochemistry. Galenic medicine (2nd century Greek physician) was the dominant paradigm of the time and called for herbal remedies. Iatrochemistry called for the use of inorganic materials to make medicine. Michal Sedziwoj who is also known as Michael Sendivogius was Polish and came up with the idea that there is a ‘food of life’ in the air in 1605. At this time, Poland and Lithuania existed as one state: the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth. It was one of the largest European states and also very tolerant of different religions. Sedziwoj was instrumental in developing Poland’s chemical industry in the 17th century. Sedziwoj’s study of chemistry was made up of 3 main components; air and its necessity for life, discovering the ‘central salt’ as a key component of air, and then making from this salt the ‘universal solvent’ for transmutation. His work on air was later picked up by Robert Boyle and John Mayow in the 17th century which eventually led to the discovery of oxygen. Anders Celsius (27 November 1701 – 25 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735 visiting notable observatories in Germany, Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 he proposed the Celsius temperature scale which takes his name. In order to establish that hydrogen gas was a substance entirely different from ordinary air, he calculated their densities as well as the densities of several other gases. He found that common air, as well as air brought by a balloon from the upper atmosphere, is made up of nitrogen in a 4:1 ratio by volume. He also showed that water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. ` Robert Boyle is one of the many great scientists who can aspire to the title of ‘father of modern chemistry’. He was born in Ireland in 1627 and died in 1691. First and foremost he carried out controlled experiments, published with detailed notes and observations, and even consulted with peers. This was instrumental in the continual development of science into an experimental field. Boyle did a lot of research using a vacuum pump. Although he did not develop ‘Boyle’s Law’ on the inverse relationship between pressure and volume, his work played a major role in helping establish it. In 1661, Boyle published ‘The Sceptical Chymist’ which was probably his best known achievement in the field of chemistry. He argued against the Aristotelian definition of an element and even revealed alchemical secrets. Boyle still believed in alchemy and transmutation and continued experiments trying to prove it.