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A Note in Time

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Santanna Wolfe

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of A Note in Time

Early Christian church
Called Gregorian chant,; also called plainchant or plainsong.
Features monophonic, nonmetric melodies.; lacking harmony
Roman Catholic Churches divided services into offices and Mass.
What do these words mean?
Gregorian Chant: also known as plainchant/plainsong: consists of a single-line melody, monophonic in texture and lacking harmony.
offices; a series of services celebrated at various hours of the day.
Mass: the most solemn ritual of the Catholic church. Attended by public worshipers.
monophonic: one melody
c. 476-1450
A Note in Time
Secular Music
Focused on love and the values of chivalry.
preformed in courts
songs and dances were sung monophonically.
Instrumental music(generally improvised) was played by both soft (indoor)and loud(outside) instruments.
poet musicians
Performed a cappella
fuller, more consonant sound
composers set text from the Ordinary of the Mass.
used the sacred form of motet.
homorhythmic setting
Secular Music
Madrigal was the most important genre of the era.
music was a form of poetry.
Expressing through word painting.
And this means?
A cappella: voice alone, no music.
word painting: making the music directly the meaning with words.
madrigal: originated in Italy as a form of aristocratic entertainment.
english madrigal: lighter and simpler.
motet: textural styles.

Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179
daughter of a noble couple
She was the 10th child and given to the church.
Major Works
Know The Way
Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations
The Play of the Virtues
Josquin des Preaz (1450-1521)
Raised in the North
His career lead him to Italy
Buried in the choir of the church.
Major Works
100 motets
17 Masses
French chansons
Italian secular
The Baroque Era

catatas: multimovement works with solo arais, recitatives, and choruses, all with orchestral.
chorale: hymn tune, sung in four-part harmony.
suite: a group of dances, usually in the same key, with each piece in binary form.
solo concerto: with one instrument set against the orchestra.
concerto grosso: a small group of soloists and orchesta.
organ, harpsichord, clavichord: main keyboard instruments.
Key Words
Johann Bach

March 1685-July 1750
German composer
organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist
wrote orchestral music/concertos; sacred vocal music; keyboard music.
The beginning of opera
Johann Bach
cello suite 1
Johann Bach
Keyboard Concerto
George Handel
embodies worldliness
born in Halle, Germany
the opera house cond violinist
wrote, produced, and directed his own operas(italian)
George Handel's

water music
George Handel's
Antonio Vivaldi
grew up in native Venice
ordained in his twenties
known as the "red priest" (because of his hair)
music was written for school concerts.
Antonio Vivaldi's
The Four Seasons
Antonio Vivaldi's
Winter/ Spring/ Summer
The Classical Era
string quartet: made up of 2 violins,viola,and cello.
duo sonata: violin and piano or cello and piano
piano trio: violin, cello, and piano.
quintet: combination of string or wind instruments/ a string quintet and solo instrument such as the piano or clarinet.
Rocket themes: quickly ascending
Joseph Haydn
Born in Rohrau, Austrian
wrote in aabcc format
his writing texture begin in homophonic then becomes more polyphonic.
died in 1809
Wolfgang Mozart
Born in Salzburg, Austria
composed before age 5
wrote sonatas, conertos, symphonies, religious works, and operas.
elegant and songful dance melodies.
The Best Of Mozart
Romantic Period
Key Terms
Program music: genre of evoking images and ideas.
absolute: pure music that consists of musical patterns.
symphonic poem: program music for orchestra in one movement.
Edvard Grieg
attended the famous Leipzig Conservatory
promoted Scandinnavain music in Norway
collabroated with Henrik Iben to write Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
The Opera
Mid-late 1700's
Major Composers: Christoph Willibald Gluck, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Many of the first operas composed early in the Baroque period survive only in fragments or have been lost altogether.
laid the foundations for the progression of the art form music.
Biblical or historical figures.
The Opera
Mid-late 1700
Composers: Christopher Willbald Gluck
Wolfgang Mozart
clear and simple flow
rejected many of the musical techniques of that defined the Baroque perios.
italian and German theater
The Opera

Composers: Gioacchino Rossini,
Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini

defined by beautiful singing
created to showcase a singer’s range, power and flexibility
frequently focused on passion and romance.
First used as a derogorty term to describe french paninters.
painters, peots adn composers resisted strict rules of their time.
Composer: Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
no western luxuries or decadence.
artist were looking back into their roots.
focus on primal events and emotions with special concentration on the violent basis of human character.
nationalism and local color were taken to an extreme.
Composers: Bela Bartok (1881-1945)
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971),
the logical extension of extreme emotionalism that emerged in the Romantic period in combination with the aesthetic of Ugliness.
a reaction to Impressionism
permeates the other arts
Composers: Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
•Anton Webern (1883-1945)
•Alban Berg (1885-1935), wrote the opera Wozzeck (1922)
composers returned to tonality and the forms associated with the late 18th century.
classical orchestra was smaller, and with so many people off fighting during the wars of the 20th century, enough performers for the modern large orchestras were often hard to find.
remained more popular with audiences than Expressionism or Primitivism.
Great Britain
Edward Elgar (1858- 1935): performer & composer, most known for Pomp and Circumstance and the Cello Concerto
Gustav Holst (1874-1934): influenced by Hindu mysticism, learned Sanskrit, and used many English folk songs in his orchestrations such as The Planets
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958): nine symphonies, co-edited the Oxford Book of Carols, wrote many vocal solos & choral pieces, and collected & arranged British folk songs such as Greensleeves
Benjamin Britten (1913- 1976) most prolific English composer: Ceremony of Carols, Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra included in your text/CD, and many operas such as Peter Grimes and Billy Budd
Carl Orff (1895- 1982): most famous for writing Carmina Burana, for chorus, soloists, and orchestra. The texts come from a collection of discovered 13th century very racy poems written by students in a monastery. The music includes driving rhythms, ostinato patterns, and has been used frequently in films and commercials. The above listening selection is the opening section of the work, called O Fortuna.
Paul Hindemith (1895- 1963): composer & teacher, escaped Nazi regime in the 40's by moving to the US where he taught at Yale, and created many works for amateurs & students and also wrote solo pieces for unusual instruments like saxophone, bassoon, harp, and tuba.
Erik Satie (1866-1925) strongly opposed Impressionism of his French contemporaries, and wrote clever, non-sentimental music with surreal titles such as Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear, and Three Flabby Preludes for a Dog, and Jack in the Box.
Francis Poulenc ( 1899- 1963): wrote choral works, many charming chansons (songs) and the opera Dialogues of the CarmelitesDarius Milhaud (1892-1974): most prolific French composer, wrote for every form, including much film music. He incorporated sounds from both France and South America into his compositions
Latin America
Carlos Chavez (1899-1978): was one of Mexico's most outstanding composers, and often incorporated Native American folk tunes into his pieces such as Toccata for Percussion and the ballet Horsepower
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959): Brazilian composer, friends with French composer Milhaud, he wrote more than 2000 works, the Bachiana brasileiras, the most widely known work that is a group of 9 pieces blending the style of Bach with his Brazilian heritage

created by African Americans during the 20th century in New Orleans.
has made a powerful influence on music today.
Billie Holiday
born Eleanora Fagon on April 7,1915, Philadelphia, PA
Movies: Lady Sings the Blues, New Orleans, Strange Fruit
songs:Strange Fruit
Gloomy Sunday
You've Changed
God Bless the Child
Crazy He Calls Me
Died: July 17, 1959, New York City, NY
Duke Ellington
April 29,1899-May 24,1974
His career spanned over 50 years
American composer, pianist and bandleader of jazz orchestras
a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington himself embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a "liberating principle", and referred his music to the more general category of "American Music", rather than to a musical genre such as "jazz".
Steven Foster
July 4,1826-January 13,1864
considered first great songwriter.
wrote from his own personal experiences
distinctly American
wrote over 200 songs
songs remain popular over 150 years after he wrote them.
Musical Theater
received its roots from European opera.
revamped to suit American taste
classical and pop music
George Gershwin
September 26,1898-July 11,1937
one of the most significant composers of the 20th century.
known for stage and screen numbers.
begin playing in nightclubs at age 15.
worked as a rehearsal pianist for Broadway singers.
Rock and Roll
When the mode of the music changes the walls of the city shake.
Rock and Roll
begin in the south after World War 2
Rock and Roll was black slang for sex.
it was forbidden, something that was not supposed to be done.
brought on Rhythm and blues and a change in gospel music
Elvis Presley
started recording in 1953 at age 18.
he loved gospel and almost join a gospel group at age 19.
at the end of July proformed for the first time the song That's Alright Mama
Chuck Berry
came in to record in 1952
people thought he was white
started with a Blues group
he was into Country Western music
he was a daytime cosmetologist
his song MayBellene became a #1 hit in 1955.
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