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Chitin - Biopolymer

Chemistry Material Assignment

Cindy Xiao

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of Chitin - Biopolymer

CHITIN Introduction Uses In Society Medicinal Application
- Chitin has wound healing properties
- used for the coating of sutures, or stiches, dressings for burns and surface wounds.
- use of chitin enhanced healing time and reduced pain.
- making of items such as bacterial sponges, artificial blood vessels, contact lenses etc.

- used in deacylated as CHITOSAN for treatment of agricultural seeds which make them larger and increase crop yield
- added to commercial feed mixtures with high lactose whey present; hard for animals to digest to promote growth of beneficial microorganisms that help break down whey. Intra- and Intermolecular - Hydrogen bonding is the bonding used inter- and intra-molecularly
- Structure is similar to cellulose, but with acetylamine groups on each monomer instead of hydroxyl groups.
- this basically allows increased hydrogen bonding, enhancing the strength of the structure. Chitin Bonds Chitin is amongst the most abundant biopolymers on earth. It is commonly present in the natural world, almost always in invertebrates, serving as a type of ‘armor’ known as a cell wall for fungi and are the main component of exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans.
Chitin is also used for of the radula, or teeth of mollusks such as limpets and the beaks of cephalopods such as squid.
Chitin aids the survival of many organisms and is crucial in nature. - The overall structure is highly ordered linear, crystalline structure.

Each form exhibiting the compact forming of sugar chains. The characteristics of each make the individual type ideal for different situations. Structure
- it was discovered that Chitin had wound healing properties and have since been used for the coating of sutures or stiches, dressings for burns and surface wounds.
- enhanced healing time and reduced pain.
- used in the making of bacterial sponges, artificial blood vessels, contact lenses

- used for treatment of seeds which makes them larger, stronger and increases crop yield.
- added to commercial feed mixtures with high lactore whey present, which is difficult animals to break down.
Chitin promotes growth of beneficial microorganisms which help the breakdown process of the whey. Structure/properties
- arranged in antiparallel sugar chains and is the most common of the three.
- is found where extreme hardness is mandatory
e.g shells of crustaceans.
- Extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding allows a-chitin to be relatively resistant to swelling when in the presence of water.
b- and y- chitin

- b- chitin chains are arranged completely parallel and 1 of every 3 chains are oriented in the opposite direction for y- chitin.
- these types of chitin provides toughness, as well at flexibility and is usually found in the joints of the crustaceans to allow movement. Properties Hardness, strong and relatively insoluble
- explained by the extensive inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding along with the closely compact sugar chains that exist within the material.
-Due to the increased hydrogen bonding, there are no available OH groups to bond with water, resulting in its insolubility.

- The by-catch from commercial fishing which is considered ‘not-edible’ or ‘trash’ e.g the molts of crustaceans, can be used as sources of chitin which is beneficial from an economical point of view as there is little wastage. Extraction b- and y- chitin a- chitin - Chitin is found in close association with other proteins and minerals.

demineralization: dissolving minerals using acid

deproteinisation: proteins are hydrolysed by alkali

decolouration: using solvents - Chitin is extracted mainly from arthropods of aquaculture. Due to its versatility in biological and chemical activities, Chitin holds great economic value. It is naturally abundant, and due to the abundance of crustacean shells and their availability, they are able to be extracted relatively safely on a commercial scale. Interesting Facts - chitin is used in the making of sutures (medical stiches) due to the fact that they are biodegradable and are actually absorbed by the body as it heals, eliminating the need for surgical removal.

- chitin is used in the process of water purification.
as polymers have a natural tendency to form chains, its positive charges act as hooks which catch organic materials and other contaminants which are suspended in the water. The material then coagulates and is easily filtered out. extraction involves Agricultural Purposes Medicinal Application 3 forms of Chitin
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