Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


The Cold War

No description

Jason Herrud

on 23 February 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
The Leaders' Differing Visions
President Harry Truman
Communist Party General Secretary
Josef Stalin
After WWII, President Truman really wanted
strong, stable democracies in Europe
, both to prevent the spread of Communism as well as to create a market for U.S. products.
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin wanted

control of Eastern Europe
to protect against other invasions from the West and to rebuild the Soviet Union’s own war-damaged economy.
1) Communism and Capitalism / Democracy
conflicted with each other too much.
2) Stalin set up Communist governments in Eastern Europe called satellite nations (
they were controlled by the Soviet Union
3) The US refused to share
the secrets behind the atomic bomb
(guess what - the Soviets figure it out anyway!)
4) The Soviets
kept troops in Eastern Europe
after WWII was over.
between Eastern and Western Europe
Reasons for the
American-Soviet Rivalry
Iron Curtain
After WWII, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill briefly lost his position as Prime Minister (because of his party losing the majority - he was still in Parliament). During the six years before he was reinstated, Churchill gave a speech at an American college in which he said

"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an
Iron Curtain
has descended across the continent."

What do you think he meant?
President Truman feared that allowing Communism to spread around the globe would be similar to the appeasment of Hitler. He started a new foreign policy called Containment. Containment meant that
the U.S. would stop the spread of Communism to other countries, but not try to directly fight it where it already existed.
The Truman Doctrine
Part of Truman's containment policy.
The Truman Doctrine said
that the U.S. would send economic and military aid to countries that were trying to resist Communist takeover
. It started with Greece and Turkey, where Communist rebels, with the help of the Soviet Union, were trying to overthrow the governments there.
The Marshall Plan
It wasn't just about military takeovers, however; Truman's administration realized that
if the economic situation got bad enough in European countries after WWII, they might choose Communism
. This led to the Marshall Plan -
the U.S. would loan money to European countries to rebuild after the war
. It worked!
Countries that received Marshall Plan funding recovered from the war very quickly and didn't turn to Communism.
After WWII, Germany was split in two parts– West Germany and East Germany

East Germany was controlled by
the Soviet Union

West Germany was controlled by
Britain, France, and America
(West Germany became independent in 1949).

Divided Germany
The Berlin Airlift
The capital of Germany was Berlin, which was way over in the middle of East Germany. The city was divided up in a similar fashion to the country. Stalin wanted Berlin to be unified under Soviet control, so in 1948, the Soviets started a blockade of West Berlin.
They stopped all land and water traffic to the city, cut off the electricity, and stopped all food delivery
. Stalin intended to starve the people there into accepting Soviet control.
President Truman had other plans, though; with help from the British and French, he began the Berlin Airlift. The three countries
flew in supplies all day, every day, for 327 days
, keeping the people of West Berlin from starving or freezing to death. In the end, Stalin gave up and lifted the blockade.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
Partly as a response to the Berlin Blockade, the U.S., Canada, and ten European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO was created as
a defensive alliance against the Soviet Union, with each member pledging to defend the others.
The Soviet Union responded to the creation of NATO by creating their own defense alliance, The Warsaw Pact.
Warsaw Pact was
a military defensive alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in Eastern Europe
(so really just the Soviets and countries they already controlled).

The Berlin Wall
The Soviets were not finished with Berlin, though. In 1961, they
began construction of a wall around West Berlin
. The purpose of the Berlin Wall was to prevent people from Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe from escaping to the West. The Wall stayed in place until it was finally torn down in 1990.
Berlin Divided and Blockaded
During WWII, the U.S. had supported the efforts of two Chinese rebel leaders fighting the Japanese occupation of China. After the war, the U.S. supported the leader of the Chinese Nationalist Army,
Chiang Kai-shek
, because the other leader,
Mao Zedong
, was a Communist. A civil war between the two erupted and in 1948,
Mao Zedong won
(the Nationalists fled to what is today Taiwan). China then became a Communist country, alarming many Americans. President Truman was blamed, even though it had nothing to do with him.

China "Falls" to Communism
The Korean War
Then in 1950, the Korean War began. After WWII, the Korean peninsula had been divided along the 38th parallel into
North Korea
(occupied by the Soviet Union) and
South Korea
(occupied by the U.S.). Neither side agreed to the boundary, and
in 1950, the Communist North Korea (with the support of the Soviet Union and China) invaded South Korea.

The Korean War
United Nations
Security Council unanimously voted to intervene and protect South Korea. The Soviet Union could have vetoed the intervention, but they had been boycotting the Council meetings due to the inclusion on the Council of Taiwan and not China. U.S. General Douglas MacArthur
was put in charge of UN forces
In spite of being vastly outnumbered, the UN forces quickly pushed the North Koreans almost back to the Chinese border.
Truman and MacArthur
China Intervenes
China had warned that they would invade to protect North Korea if the UN forces crossed the 38th parallel. President Truman was worried about this, but General MacArthur assured him (in a pretty disrespectful manner) that this would never happen, because China didn't have the air support to protect their troops. 10 days later, China invaded with over 1 million troops supported by Soviet air support. The UN forces were pushed back. The war then turned into a long stalemate (neither side gained much ground).
The following summer, President Truman fired General MacArthur. MacArthur had
violated Truman's orders
in invading past the 38th parallel, had
publicly criticized the President
, had advocated and
threatened to use nuclear weapons against both North Korea and China
, and had
said that the U.S. should just invade and conquer China
. While Congressional hearings agreed that MacArthur had violated orders, among the American people MacArthur was a hero and Truman looked like a wimp.
Finally after three years,
the war ended in a stalemate with North and South Korea agreeing on the 38th parallel as the border dividing them
. To this day, the countries are divided.

"We Like Ike"
In 1952, retired five-star general
Dwight "Ike" Eisenhower
was elected president. Just like Truman, Eisenhower was cautious about both using nuclear weapons and going to war with China. He continued Truman's efforts to end the war by treaty.
President-elect Eisenhower visits U.S. troops in Korea in the winter of 1952.
Space Race!
At the end of WWII, the U.S. and the Soviets both recruited German scientists who had worked in the Nazi rocket program. Both countries began competing for
dominance of spaceflight technology
. This competition came to be called the "Space Race."
Why race to space?
Two reasons:
The rocket technology needed to go to space would also have military uses
(such as nuclear bombs).
2) It was a morale thing -
to prove who was the best
Wernher von Braun with a model of the V2 Rocket, which he helped develop for the Nazi military. He was the most famous of the Nazi scientists to go on to work for NASA and helped develop the rockets that eventually helped the U.S. get to the moon.
In 1957, the Soviets surprised the world and won the first round of the Space Race by launching Sputnik 1. Sputnik was
the first artificial satellite
ever. Sputnik scared Americans because 1)
it showed that the Soviets were more scientifically advanced
than the U.S. and 2) if they could launch a missile into space, could they launch a missile to America?
In response to Sputnik, the U.S. government began to
put more emphasis on math and science education
. The National Defense Education Act (1958) gave billions of dollars to public schools and universities to increase their math and science programs and to help students attend college.
We Win!
Map of soft landings on the moon. Red = Soviet (unmanned, Green = U.S. (unmanned), Blue = U.S. (manned), and Yellow = Chinese (unmanned)
Buzz Aldrin, the 2nd man on the moon (no, the flag isn't flapping in the wind)
Saturn V Rocket that was used to reach the moon.
On July 20th, 1969, the U.S. "won" the Space Race by successfully landing a man (two, actually) on the moon. The U.S. would go on to land 5 more manned missions on the moon and is to date the only country to ever send a manned mission there.
Everyday Inventions Brought to You By the Space Race
solar panels
Invisalign braces
memory foam
gel inserts
cordless vacuums
artificial limbs
freeze-dried food
ear thermometers
NOT Velcro, cordless power tools, or Tang (those are all myths)
The Arms Race
Alongside the Space Race, the United States and the Soviet Union also
competed to have greater military force than the other
, mostly in the form of developing nuclear weapons.
America believed that if Russia were to have more nuclear warheads than the U.S. then they would be less afraid to use them, and so the U.S. should strive to maintain, at minimum, nuclear equality with Russia. Also, nuclear rivalry led to
the invention of a long line of increasingly deadlier weapons

Duck and Cover
Americans were very nervous about the
threat of nuclear war
. Schools did safety drills in which students were told to hide under their desks in the case of a nuclear attack.

Meanwhile, local governments, businesses, and individuals bought or constructed bomb shelters and fallout shelters (the first protects you from explosions, the second from radiation). Homeowners could even buy bomb shelter kits from magazines to install themselves.
The H-Bomb
Mushroom-shaped cloud and water column from the underwater Baker nuclear explosion of July 25, 1946. Photo taken from a tower on Bikini Island, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) away. Photo digitally colorized.
"Ivy Mike," the first hydrogen bomb ever tested
Diagram of a hydrogen bomb
As part of the arms race, the U.S. and the Soviets kept building more and more powerful bombs. In 1950, the U.S. developed the Hydrogen Bomb, a bomb that relied on the fission of hydrogen atoms to create the energy for nuclear fusion reaction (thus, these are the nuclear bombs, as opposed to the earlier atomic bombs). Hydrogen bombs can be
1000x more powerful than atomic bombs
The Second Red Scare
Many Americans felt threatened by the rise of Communist governments in Europe and Asia.

Some even felt
that Communists could threaten the U.S. Government from within
Loyalty Review Boards
Pressured by his Republican critics to do something, President Truman set up Loyalty Review Boards to
investigate government employees

These boards questioned more than 3 million government employees and removed about 200 from their jobs. The reasons for their firing ranged from actually having communist sympathies to being an alcoholic to being in debt to be gay.
In 1947, a Congressional committee called the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) began an
investigation of Communist influence in the movie industry.
Although most people brought before the committee cooperated, ten men refused. These men, known as the Hollywood Ten,
felt that the committee’s questions were unconstitutional
, and they went to prison for refusing to answer. Their careers were ruined.

Young Representative Richard Nixon first made a name for himself as one of the top members of HUAC.
Protestors demanding a presidential pardon for the Hollywood Ten
Two spy cases in the late 1940’s increased fears of communism
The first involved a State Department official named Alger Hiss, who was accused of
spying for the Soviet Union

In the second case, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, members of the American Communist Party, were convicted of
helping to give the Soviets information about the atomic bomb.
The Rosenberg's were executed for their crime
Hiss maintained until his death that he was innocent (he died in prison serving a sentence for perjury). No one has ever been able to prove that he was a spy…or that he wasn’t.
Were they really spies?
Much like the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, many Americans feared that the Rosenburgs might have been innocent.

In 1997 the Venona Papers were released proving that
a secret government investigation had revealed the names of Soviet Spies in America
, including Julius Rosenberg.
In the early 1950s, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy
claimed that hundreds of Communists were taking over the government

McCarthy never actually produced any evidence to prove his accusations.

His Republican colleagues in the Senate encouraged his bullying tactics, known as McCarthyism.
Joseph McCarthy
The Rise and Fall of McCarthyism
McCarthy’s unsupported charges violated the constitutional rights of the people he accused and often ruined their careers.

Then in 1954, during televised hearings into the U.S. Army, McCarthy’s vicious behavior was revealed to American viewers.

As a result, he lost public support, and the Senate voted to condemn him for improper conduct.
This is Mr. Chandler's wife's grandfather talking about his experience in the Korean War, serving in the 176th Armored Artillery Battalion. The video is 9 minutes long.
Life for a South Korean border guard
American soldier explaining the routine at the border.
Long video that sums up the Korean War. Start at 1:38.
1955 Walt Disney documentary about space flight, featuring Wernher von Braun.
Full transcript