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Copy of Unit 1 geography staar review prezi
Transcript of Copy of Unit 1 geography staar review prezi
global positioning system- satellites,rely,information,earth
Geographic information systems- technology,digital map, info,databank
political map- features,surface,human created
thematic map-specific,information Types of Regions ABSOLUTE LOCATION- EXACT,PLACE,GEOGRAPHIC,FEATURE
RELATIVE LOCATION-PLACE, RELATION ,OTHER ,PLACE AROUND
PRIME MERIDIAN- IMAGINARY LINE,LONGITUDE, HALF
LATITUDE- IMAGINARY LINE,PARALLEL,EQUATOR
LONGITUDE-Imaginary LINES,DIVIDING,EAST AND WEST T Formal Regions-region,limited #, related characteristics
Perceptual regions-region,people,see,characteristics,place Structure of the earth- Core-center,earth
Crust-thin,layer,earth,rock Parts of the Earth- Lithosphere-solid,rock,earth,surface
Biosphere-living part of the earth Water and Landforms Hydrologic cycle- circulation,water,earth
Drainage Basin- area,drained,major body of water
Water table- rock,saturated
Delta- triangular area,divides body of water
Glacier-large,mass,ice,moves by gravity Internal Forces Shaping the Earth tectonic plates /forces-an enormous moving shelf that forms the earth’s crust
divergent boundary -plates that move apart or spread
convergent boundary-plates collide with each other, causing one plate to either dive under or ride up over the other plate
transform boundary -when tectonic plates slide past one another
fault-a fracture in the earth’s crust where plates move past each other Earthquakes,Tsunami, seismograph-measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake
epicenter-the point directly above the focus(where the earthquake begins) on the earth’s surface where
Richter Scale -Uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
tsunami- a giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake
Ring of Fire-A zone around the rim of the Pacific Ocean where the majority of active volcanoes are found mechanical weathering -a natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces chemical weathering-a process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock
erosion- the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity
glaciations-the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers
Soil and Vegetation humus- organic material in soil
the process where organic material becomes fertile soil
ecosystem- an interdependent community of plants and animals
biomes- regional ecosystems. Biomes are divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra External Forces Shaping the Earth Seasons solstice-either of two times of year when the sun’s rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter; in Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice the shortest
equinox - each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn
Tropic of Cancer-The farthest point north the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon
Tropic of Capricorn -The farthest point south the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon Weather and Climate weather- the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
climate- the typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over timeprecipitation-falling water droplets in te form of rain, sleet, snow, or halfwind systems- help distribute the sun’s heat from one part of the world to another ocean currents - impact the temperature of area and the amount of precipitation a region receivesWeather Extremes hurricane-a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waterstyphoon-a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
tornado-a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling airblizzard- a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quarter miledrought- a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall climate climate region-a region that experiences particular weather conditions over many years. Temperature and precipitation are the two most significant factors. Topography, elevation, and location on a continent also impact a region’s climate
tropical - refers to regions with little variation in temperature. Typically tropical regions receive large of amounts of rain.tundra -the flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean
permafrost-permanently frozen ground
Culture and Population
the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
ethnic minority - an individual who identifies with the minority population of a region. Members of ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in political power, and in some cases, persecuted for their ethnicity
religious minority-an individual who belongs to a minority religion in a region. India is largely a Hindu nation yet it also has a sizeable Muslim and Sikh populations Climate part 2 polytheistic-a belief in the existence in may godsBuddhism- A religion founded in the sixth century and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict caste system.Hinduism-One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back 4000 year, and originating in the Indus River Valley. Hinduism is unique among the world’s religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its originsanimistic-The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth Demographic Indicators birthrate- the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand populationfertility rate- the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her countrymortality rate- the number of deaths per thousandinfant mortality- the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births population pyramids- graphic devices that show gender and age distribution of a populationlife expectancy - An amount in years indicating how long, on average, a resident of a particular place is expected to live literacy rate - An amount, usually a percentage, of a given population who possess the ability to read and writepopulation density-the average number of people who live in a measurable area Movement push and pull factors- push factors push people from their homeland, while pull factors attract people to a new locationmigration-the movement of peoples within a country or region
connectivity- the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network Governments democracy- a type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
dictatorship-a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
monarchy-a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies
republic- a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf
theocracy- state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided. Vatican City and the country of Iran are theocracies
totalitarian- a political system where the state controls all political and economic power. Media is censored by the state and few individual rights exist. The Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and Nazi Germany are examples of totalitarian governments. Settlement Patterns metropolitan area- a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economicallysuburbs -a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the cityurbanization - the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that resultsustainable development- economic and or population growth that does not impact the environment in a lasting negative manner
infrastructure- the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems Economic Systems Free Enterprise- An economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources,
System- An economic system where social, or public ownership of resources exists.
Communist Economic System- A system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of production
Traditional Economies - A system where goods and services are traded without exchanging money. This exchange of goods is often called bartering. Levels of Development Primary-
Economic activities that involve gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in making of a final productSecondary - Economic activities that involve adding value to materials by changing their form. Manufacturing automobiles is an example
Tertiary -Economic activities that involve providing business or professional services. Salespeople, teachers, or doctors are examples
Quaternary - Economic activities that provide information, management, and research services by highly-trained persons Economic Indicators gross domestic per capita -the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
standard of living- a measure of quality of life in a location.
less developed- a country, or region, that has not attained a specified level of development.Much of the population in a less developed country lives in poverty.
newly developed - a country, or region, that has recently attained a specified level of development. Often, the discovery and distribution of natural goods provides the spark that initiates the successful economy. South Korea, Singapore and Brazil are considered newly developedcountries
more developed - a country that has attained the highest level of development due to wealth, income, economic and social opportunities. More developed countries are usually leaders in technology and scientific innovation. The United States, Canada, Japan and many western European countries are grouped as more developed Economic Production subsistence agriculture- an activity where a family produces only enough food to be self-sufficient. commercial agriculture- an activity where crops are grown food the purpose of sale. cottage industries- an economic activity performed at home. Labor is usually limited to one craftsman and another family member. .commercial industries- an economic activity performed in a factory where division of labor exists. manufacturing- an economic activity that utilizes skilled labor and machines to produce goods for sale.
service industries- an economic activity where a service is provided rather than a good. Trade globalization- The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. outsourcing- when production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor. free trade zones- areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes (custom duties and tariffs) that might exist elsewhere. export-a product or good that is sold from one country to another.import-a product that is purchased from one country by another. NAFTA -North American Free Trade Agreement w/ Mexico and Canada.